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LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

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1115 



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y OF MumwM 

BRARY 

DAVIS 

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STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 

DIVISION OF RESOURCES PLANNING 



BULLETIN NO. 66 



luALITY OF GROUND WATERS 

IN CALIFORNIA 
1955-1956 



GOODWIN J. KNIGHT 
Governor 




DAVIS 
MAY 4 1959 



liSRARY 



har\i:y o. banks 

Director of Water Resources 






, 



IIA 



GOOl 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 

DIVISION OF RESOURCES PLANNING 



BULLETIN NO. 66 



iuALITY OF GROUND WATERS 

IN CALIFORNIA 
1955-1956 




GOODWIN J. KNIGHT Iff '^^ll HARVEY O. BANKS 

Governor f\\ ^.jJ^"] Director of Water Resources 



LIBRARY 

UUIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
PA VIS 



1 



I 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
FRONTISPIECE .... „,..„.,,....„..,.,.,.,.. • 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL „ <. . . o . . „ . o . , . . . » o o , V 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS „..,„„.„.,...„..,.,... o ... . ,vii 

ORGANIZATION, STATE DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES ...,,...., vl±± 

ORGANIZATION, CALIFORNIA WATER COM^■JSSION ....„......,,.. x 

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION . ........ . 1 

Authorization ..... ....................... „ 2 

Objectives and Scope .. ....................... . 2 

Survey Methods ...........,...,..,,.,.,,.... k 

Laboratory Methods and Procedures .....,....,.,...,,.. 5 

Water Quality Criteria . ....................... . 6 

Criteria for Drinking Water ................... 6 

Criteria for Irrigation Water .„ ............... . 8 

Criteria for Industrial Uses. „. ............... . 9 

CHAPTER II GROVm WATER QUALITY. ....... 12 

North Coastal Region (No„ l) ...................... 12 

Smith River Plain, Crescent City Area .............. 13 

\\ ' Ukiah Valley o... ...... 14 

Sanel Valley .. ....,.•.....,,,.....,.... 16 

San Francisco Bay Region (No„ 2) .................... 17 

Santa Clara Valley, East Bay Area 17 

Santa Clara Valley, South Bay Area ................ 19 

Livermore Valley „.,......,.....,...„....„ 21 

Central Coastal Region (No. 3) ..................... 22 

A » J dT'-' V aiJLSjr eeoeooooooooooooooo«o««Ao o ^J 



o o e 



Carmel Valley- 
Santa Maria Valley. „ « . . « <. . c o » <, . 
Cuyama Valley , o. 00=00, .0..0. 
Los Angeles Region (NOo 4) « . o . . o o . . . . . 

Oxnard Plain Basin. .. .o ...••.. . 

West Coast Basin. ............. 

Area of Sea-Water Intrusion. . » , . . 
Torrance Area , .... o .. o ... • 

Athens Area ,„. o , ... o .... . 

Central Coastal Plain Pressure Area and 

Los Angeles Forebay Area . . . o o . « 

Main San Gabriel Basin „ . „ . o » . . . . . 

Central Valley Region (No. 5) .... ... o, . 

Upper Lake Valley „ « » o o . . . . o . o . 

Kelseyville Valley. .„ o « o ...... . 

Sacramento Valley .» o o .. ...... . 

Sutter- Yuba Area . . . o . o o . . o . 

Sacramento County. « . . . o . . . . o 
San Joaquin Valley .. o ......... . 

San Joaquin County. .......... 

Fresno County, West Side Area. .... 

Raisin City Oil Field Area ...... 

Devils Den Oil Field Area. ...... 

Edison Oil Field Area. ........ 

Lahontan Region (No. 6) .„ .......... . 

Lower Mojave River Valley, Barstow to Yermo 
Colorado River Basin Region (No. 7) . • • • • • • 

Coachella Valley .............. 



. 26 
. 27 
. 29 
. 30 
. 31 
. 33 
. 34 
. 35 
o 36 

o 37 
o 38 
. 40 
. 42 
. 43 
. 44 
. 44 
. 46 
. 47 
. 47 
. 49 
. 50 
. 51 
. 52 
. 53 
o 54 

o 56 

o 57 



I 



11 



Page 

Santa Ana Region (No. 8) ., „„..,. o. o .... o . 59 

East Coastal Plain Pressure Area .„o ...... 59 

Chino Basin ....„...,». ...... .......<.. d2 

Bunker Hill Basin .. .................... . 63 

San Diego Region (No. 9) ...................... . 65 

San Luis Rey Valley .,„.., ............... . 65 

El Cajon Valley ........................ 67 

Tia Juana Valley Basin. .................... 68 



111 



Niimber 



TABLES 



1 Limiting Concentrations of Mineral Constituents 

for Drinking Water, 7 

2 Qualitative Classification of Irrigation Water 9 

3 Water Quality Tolerance for Industrial Uses 11 

PLATES 
Number 

1 Monitored Areas, 1955-56 



APPENDIX A 
Well Data 

APPENDIX B 
Mineral Analyses of Ground Water 



lY 



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I' 



1 



GOODWIN J. KNIGHT 
EY O. BANKS Oovehkoh ADDRESS REPLY TO 

p. o. BOX 388 Sacramento z 

liaON STREET Ml CKORV B-471 1 



OiKCCTon 




STATE OF CALIFORNIA 



SACRAMENTO 

June 10, 1958 



Honorable Goodwin J. Knight, Governor 
and Members of the Legislature of the 
State of California 

Water Pollution Control Boards 

Gentlemen: 

I have the honor to transnnit herewith a report on 
the quality of ground waters in California during 1955 and 
195 6. This is the second in a continuing series of reports 
on this important subject. 

The program to provide information on mineral 
quality of ground w^aters auid to detect significant changes 
in quality which may be attributable to a specific source or 
cause was initiated in 1953. This information is necessary 
in the preparation and analysis of plans for continued and 
intensive utilization of underground storage proposed in The 
California Water Plan. 

This report covers the period from January, 1955 
through December, 195 6, and presents mineral analyses of 
ground waters in 31 important ground water areas in the State. 



Very truly yours, 





HARVEY O. BANKS 
Director 



HOD 
loc 
of 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The extensive coverage of the statevride ground water quality 
monitoring program is made possible through the cooperation of numerous 
local agencies c This monitoring program encompasses the yearly collection 
of about 900 ground water samples located in 31 areas throughout the State. 

Valuable assistance and cooperations for the areas reported 
herein, of the following agencies and persons , is gratefully acknowledged? 

United States Geological Survey, Quality of Water Branch 

Alameda County Flood Control and Water Conservation District 

Del Norte & Humboldt County Farm Advisor 

Kern County Farm Advisor 

Mendocino County Farm Advisor 

Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District 

Orange County Air and Water Pollution Control District 

Sutter County Farm Advisor 

Yuba County Farm Advisor 

San Joaquin Local Health District 

California Water Sc. Telephone Company, National City 



vii 



ORGANIZATION 
STATE DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 
DIVISION OF RESOURCES PLANNING 



Harvey 0„ Banks 
Mo Jo Shelton „ 
William L„ Berry- 
Carl B„ Meyer 

Meyer Kramsky o . 

Vfillard R. Slater 



. , . o o Director of Water Resources 

, , Deputy Director of Water Resources 

, Chief, Division of Resources Planning 

. <. o Chief, Special Activities Branch 



The activity under which this report has been 
prepared is directed by 



Principal Hydraulic Engineer 



The activities in northern California are 
under the supervision of 



e « c 



Supervising Hydraulic Engineer 



Max Bookm3.n « . . 

David B. Willets . 

Carle ton Eo Plumb 
Robert Fo Clawson 
Eldon E„ Rinehart 

Wayne S,, Gentry 
Eugene C Rams^edt 
Edwin Eo Crawford 
Mary Fo Smith „ , 



The activities in southern California are 
under the direction of 

, o o o o o o . o ..„.„.. o „ o o o District Engineer 

and under the supervision of 

„ o . • o o o , o „ , » o Supervising Hydraulic Engineer 

This report was prepared by 

, o , . . . o . . o o . . o o o Senior Hydraulic Engineer 

. o . . . . o . . . . o , o . Associate Hydraulic Engineer 

, „ o o . o . o . . . . o o o o o o Associate Hydrographer 

assisted by 

..«.,,..,... o . o o o o Assistant Civil Engineer 

„„„...... o ...... o Assistant Civil Engineer 

. o . o ........ o o ... o ... o Hydrographic Aid 

................. .Intermediate Typist Clerk 






viii 



Paul Lo Barnes o . o o Chief, Division of Administration 
Porter Tovmer <, , . o . . . . . . » o o . Chief Counsel 

Isabel C, Nessler o , o » . . « , Coordinator of Reports 



NOTE; Pursuant to Chapter 52, Statutes of 1956, effective 
July 5, 1956, the Department of Water Resources 
succeeded to all the functions, duties and responsi- 
bilities concerning water quality formerly assigned 
to the Division of Water Resources, 



ix 



ORGANIZATION 
CALIFORNIA WATER COMMISSIDN 

Clair A, Hill, Chairman. Redding 
A„ Frew, Vice Chairman, King City- 
John Po Bunker, Gustine R. Ho Fuidge, Marysville 
Everett L„ Grubb, Elsinore Phil Do Svdng, San Diego 

Kenneth Q, Volk, Los Angeles 



George B. Gleason 
Chief Engineer 

Williajn M„ Carah 
Executive Secretary 



QUALITY OF GROUND WATERS IN CALIFORNIA 
1955-56 

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 

More than one-half of the water presently utilized for beneficial 
purposes in California is derived from underground storage. The ground water 
reservoirs which provide this important source of water are found principally 
in the larger alluvium-filled valleys of the State, Limited quantities of 
usable ground water, however, occur in the numerous smallj, shallow, alluvium- 
filled valleys throughout the State, as well as in extensive areas of older, 
slightly compacted sediments and limited areas of waterbearing volcanics. 

The importance of maintaining the supply available from ground 
water, and the need for greater utilization of the underground storage 
capacity in meeting future water requirements, has established the necessity 
for continued collection of data relative to ground water quality. Such 
data are essential to any program of quality control, and are indispensable 
to formulation of plans for conjunctive operation of surface and underground 
storage, as proposed under The California Water Plan, 

Because of the widespread occurrence, and relatively slow rate of 
movement of groiind water, the determination of ground water quality and 
detection of changes therein require reliable long term observation and 
records. Accordingly, a statewide program of observation of ground water 
quality to provide such data was commenced in the summer of 1953 <■ 

This is the second of a series of reports presenting the basic 
water quality data in selected ground water basins and monitored areas of 
the State, It includes results of analyses of ground water samples 
collected d\iring the period January, 1955.9 through December, 1956o 



-1= 



Water Quality Investigation Report No, 14 entitled "Groiin.d Water Quality- 
Monitoring Program in California" was the first of this series. 

Authorization 
The continuing ground water quality monitoring program reported 
upon herein is authorized hj Section 229 of the Water Code, This section 

directs thats 

"The Department of Water Resources shall investigate 
conditions of the quality of all waters within the 
State^ including saline waterSj coastal and inland, 
as related to a3J. sources of pollution of whatever 
nature and shall report thereon to the Legislature 
and to the appropriate regional water pollution 
control board annually ^ and may recommend any steps 
which might, be taken to improve or protect the quality 
of such waters," 

Objectives and Scope 
The statewide ground water quality monitoring program has the 
following main objectives; 

(1) To provide information on the present or prevailing 
mineral quality of ground waters as related to various 
beneficial uses| 

(2) To secure data relative to significant changes in mineral 
quality resulting from these uses and from the effects of 
waste disposal^ 

(3) To ascertain the area affected by such changes and provide 
a continxxing check of quality of ground waters. 

The program presently comprises systematic collection and mineral 
analysis of water samples from 31 ground water basins in California, 
Suggestions from the regional Water Pollution Control Boards and other water 
agencies were given due consideration in the selection of monitoring areas 
and well networks, 

-2~ 



I 



In general, monitored areas may be divided into three classifications, 
based on the water quality problem and use of waters. These classifications 
are: (l) areas wherein water quality problems presently exist, whether or not 
associated with existing uses, (2) areas wherein extensive use is made of the 
ground water resources without necessarily creating water quality problems, and 
(3) areas in which gro\md water is not presently used extensively but in which 
it is desirable to secure data on water quality conditions in preparation for 
potential urban, agricultural or industrial development. 

Water quality problems may be caused by sea water intrusion, 
connate saline brines, adverse salt balance, waste discharges or natural 
sources of quality impairment such as mineralized springs. Sea water \ 
intrusion into coastal basins is particularly critical and its extent must 
be accurately determined and its effects evaluated. 

The frequency of sampling and the density of the sampling network 
depends upon the classification of the area monitored, and the nature and 
imminence of the quality problem. 

Areas in classification (l) are sampled one or more times per year. 
Areas in classification (2) are sampled one time per year and those areas in 
classification (3) after sufficient data are collected to categorize the 
basin, are sampled every other year. 

The monitoring program is continually being expanded (l) to 
include additional areas for which no previous water quality data are 
available but where it is anticipated that development will ultimately take 
place; (2) to include areas where new water quality problems are found; 
(3) to continue water quality records in areas where specific water quality 
investigations were conducted, and (4) to supplement or fill gaps in water 
quality data in areas where serious water quality problems exist. 



-3- 



It is planned to expand this program during 1958 to include 
radiological as well as mineral analyses in all of the monitored areas o 
These data are necessary to establish backgroiind information by which any 
subsequent increase in radioactivity of ground waters may be detected. 

Eventually every major^ and many minor ground water basins in 
the State will be included in the ground water quality monitoring program. 
Such coverage is essential in the formulation of the long range water 
development program envisioned imder The California Water Plan, 

Survey Methods 
Wells selected for inclusion in the ground water quality 
monitoring network are assigned numbers based upon their location by 
township, range and section, The numbering system is the same as that 
used by the United States Geological Survey, Under this system, each 
section is divided into 40-acre plots, lettered as follows; 



D 


e 


B 


A 


E 


F 


G 


H 


M 


L 


K 


O 


N 


P 


Q 


R 



Wells are numbered according to the order in which they are located within 
the 40-acre plots. For example, a well having a number 3N/6E-24A2, MDB&M 
is found in Township 3 North, Range 6 East, and in Section 24, Mount 
Diablo Base and Meridian, It is further identified as the second well 
located in the 40-acre plot lettered "A'*„ Water samples analyzed for this 
report are from wells located throughout the State and are, therefore, 
referenced to either the Humboldt, San Bernardino or Mount Diablo Base and 
Meridian, Reference Bases are indicated in the tables in the appendices 



\ 



-4- 



which contain tabulated data on wells and quality of well waters. 

Laboratory analyses of the water samples are performed by the 
Department of Water Resources laboratories located in Sacraimento, San 
Bernardino and Riverside and by the Water Quality Branch of the United 
States Geological Survey. 

Analytical methods used in water quality and characteristic 
determinations conform to the procedures found in "Standard Methods for the 
Examination of Water and Sewage," 10th Edition, 1955 s a publication of the 
American Public Health Association, 

The following tabulation indicates the tests made and the 
constituents generally determined in the various analyses performed in 
connection with the Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program, 



Constituent 


or 


Standard 


Partial 


characteristic determined 


mineral 


analysis 


mineral 


analysis 


Specific Conductance 




X 




X 


pH 






X 




X 


Total Dissolved 


Solids 




X 






Per Cent Sodium 






X 






Hardness 






X 




X 


Temperature 






X 




X 


Calcium 






X 






Magnesium 






X 






Sodium 






X 




X 


Potassium 






X 






Carbonate 






X 






Bicarbonate 






X 







Constituent or 
characte r istic dete rmined 

Sulfate 

Chloride 

Nitrate 

Fluoride 

Boron 

Silica 



Standard 


Partial 


mineral analysis 


mineral analysis 


X 




X 


X 


X 




X 




X 


X 


X 





In addition to the tests indicated above, determination of 
heavy metals is made when warranted o 

Water Q uality Criteria 
Criteria indiich serve to indicate the acceptability of water for 
the most common beneficial uses are described in this sectiono These 
criteria are used ty the Department of Water Resources in classifying water 
on the basis of suitability for various uses. In nearly all cases the 
values given are useful principally as guides to effective judgment » 

Criteri a for Drinking Water 

Water that is used for drinking and culinary purposes must be 
clear, colorless, odorless and pleasant to the taste, and must not endanger 
the lives or health of human beings » These general requirements pertain to 
the water as it is finally delivered to the consumer. In many cases, prior 
treatment may be necessary. 

Chapter 7 of the California Health and Safety Code contains laws 
and standards relating to domestic water supply. Section 4010.5 of this 
code refers to the drinking water standards promulgated by the United States 
Public Health Service for water used on interstate carriers, and adopted as 

_6= 






drinking water standards by the State of California o In accordance with these 
standards 5 chemical substances in drinking water supplies, either natural or 
treated, should not exceed the concentrations shown in Table 1, adapted from 
the detailed regulations contained in the United States Public Health Report, 
Volume 61, NOo 11, March 15, 1946. 

TABLE 1 



LIMITING CONCENTRATIONS OF 
MINERAL CONSTITUENTS FOR DRINKING WATER 

United States Public Health Service 
Drinking Water Standards, 1946 



Constituent ,, . t, . ■^ 

Million 



Mandatory 

Fluoride (F) 1„5 

Lead (Pb) 0,1 

Selenium (Se) Go 05 

Hexavalent Chromium (Cr'*'^) 0„05 

Arsenic (As) 0„05 

Non-Mandatory but Recommended Values 

Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) together 0„3 

Magnesium (Mg) 125 

Chloride (Cl) 250 

Sulfate (SO^) 250 

Copper (Cu) 3oO 

Zinc (Zn) 15 

Phenolic Compounds in terms of phenol 0„001 

Dissolved Solids, Desirable 500 

Dissolved Solids, Permitted 1000 



„7« 



other organic or mineral substances may be limited in concentration 
if their presence in water renders it hazardous as determined by state or 
local health authorities. 

The relationship of infant methemoglobinemia (a reduction of 
oxygen content in the bloody constituting a form of asphyxia) to nitrates 
in the water supply has led to limitation of nitrates in drinking water. 
The California State Department of Public Health has recommended a tentative 
limit of 10 ppm nitrogen {kk ppm nitrates) for domestic waters. Water 
containing higher concentrations of nitrates may be considered to be of 
questionable quality for domestic and municipal use. 

An additional factor with which users are concerned is the hardness 
of the water. Hardness is principally due to calcium and magnesium and is 
generally evidenced to the consumer by inability to develop suds when using 
soap„ In general domestic use, hardness can result in increased soap 
consumption and excessive repairs to plumbing. The following classification 
of water according to hardness has been suggested by the United States 
Geological Surveys 



Class 




Range of hardness 
in ppm 


Relative 
classification 


1 






0=55 


Soft 


2 






56-100 


Slightly Hard 


3 






101-200 


Moderately Hard 


4 






201=500 


Very Hard 


Criteria for Irr 


igation 


Water 







The Department of Water Resources uses the criteria for mineral 
quality of irrigation water developed at the University of California at 
Davis and at the United States Department of Agriculture Regional Salinity 



-8= 



Laboratory at Riverside » Because of diverse climatological conditions and 
variations in crops and soils in California, only general limits of quality 
for irrigation waters can be suggested,. The Department uses the three broad 
classifications of irrigation vraiters listed in Table 2„ 

TABLE 2 

QUALITATIVE CLASSIFICATION OF 
IRRIGATION WATERS 



Class I 



Class II 



Class III 



Chemical Properties 



g Excellent to Good s Good to Injurious g 
% (Suitable for mosts (Possibly harmful; 
3 plants under any s for some crops % 
? conditions of soil? under certain s 
sand climate) s soil conditions) ; 



Total dissolved solids 
In ppm 



Less than 700 



In conductance 
EC X 10 



«' 



Less than 1,000 



Chloride ion concentration 

In milliequivalents 
per liter 

In ppm 

Sodiinn in per cent of 
base constituents 

Boron in ppm 



700=2,000 
1, 000-3 s 000 



Less 


than 5 


5-10 


Less 


than 175 


175-350 


Less 


than 60 


60-75 


Less 


than 0.5 


0.5-2.0 



Injurious to s 

Unsatisfactory ; 

(Harmful to s 

most crops and s 

unsatisfactory s 
for all but thes 

most tolerant) g 



More than 2,000 



More than 3,000 



More than 10 
More than 350 

More than 75 
More than 2,0 



Criteria for Industrial Uses 

Quality criteria for the diversified uses of vra.ter in industry 
range from exacting requirements for makeup water used in high pressure boilers 
to minimum requirements for water for washdown and ore quenching. 

Industrial use of water includes utilization for food processing. 



■9= 



i- 



Except for certain canning operations, water for this purpose must at 
least conform to quality requirements for drinking water supplies c The 
requirements of some food processing industries, however, are more stringent 
than those contained in the drinking water standards of the United States 
Public Health Service o 

Because of the large number of industrial uses of water with 
widely varied quality requirements, it is difficult to establish more than 
very broad criteria of quality. Therefore, these requirements are expressed, 
where possible^ for groups of related industries rather than for individual 
plants. The general quality requirements of several single industries and 
for representative major groups of industrial uses are listed in Table 3. 



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-11- 



CHAPTER II GROUND WATER QUALITY 

The groTxnd water basins and areas included in the water quality- 
monitoring program are described in this chaptero The descriptions of 
basins are segregated by water pollution control regions « These regionSj 
with the exception of Regions 4? 8, and 9? are synonymous with the seven 
hydrographic areas into which the State has been divided » Regions 4? 8, 
and 9.g together comprise Hydrographic Area L. The description of each 
basin includes a discussion of the source and the beneficial use of 
ground water., The reasons for including the basin in the monitoring program 
and an evaluation of water quality,, together with the associated problems 
in the basin, are given o 

As previously stated, monitored areas fall into three broad 
classifications based upon the existence of quality problems, the extent 
of ground water development ^ and the need for historical data. Locations 
of the basins currently included in the ground water quality monitoring 
program are shown on Plate lo 

North Coastal Region (NOo l) 
The North Coastal Region includes the basins draining into the 
Pacific Ocean between the California-Oregon boundary and the northern 
boundary of Lagunitas Creek drainage area in Marin County „ The region 
extends approximately 270 miles from north to south and ranges in width 
from 180 miles at the Oregon boundary to 30 miles in the southern portion. 
It occupies an area of about 19,000 square miles. 

Eighteen ground water basins have been identified in the North 
Coastal Region^ and portions of three basins have been included in the 



-12- 



i 



r 

I 



ground vra.ter quality monitoring progranic These basins are the Smith River 
Plain, Ukiah Valley, and Sanel Valley.. Two of these monitored areas were 
reported previously and Sanel Valley was added to the program in 1956. 
Smith River Plain, Crescent City Area 

The Smith River Plain is the largest alluvial area in Del Norte 
County. It averages 20 miles in length, 3^ miles in width and comprises 
about 70 square miles in the northwest portion of the county. The major 
sources of ground water in the Smith River Plain are the unconsolidated 
stream channel, flood plain, lake, and alluvial fan deposits; the loosely 
packed sand dunes | the stream terrace deposits | and the compjacted marine 
formation. Average yield of wells ranges from about 20 gallons per minute 
for wells in the marine formation to 340 gallons per minute for wells in the 
streaon channel and flood plain deposits o 

Ground water provides about one-half of the water used for 
agricultural and municipal purposes and practically all water used for 
domestic requirements in the Smith River Plain. 

Due to both the heavy precipitation and the percolation 
characteristics of the soil of the Crescent City area, the water table is 
close to the ground surface during much of the year. The use of septic 
tanks creates a serious problem and is a threat to the quality of local 
ground water supplies, particularly from the standpoint of domestic uses. 
For this reason, a ground water quality monitoring network of 15 wells was 
established in this area to evaluate and maintain a check on water quality 
conditions. Data on wells included in the network are presented in 
Appendix A. 

Ground waters of the Smith River Plain are generally calcium 
magnesium bicarbonate to magnesium bicarbonate type waters of excellent 
mineral quality. Mineral analyses of samples collected during the 



-13- 



* 



reporting period are presented in Appendix Be During the period 1953 to 
1956 a slight increase in total dissol-'^ed solids occurred^ the maximum 
and minimum increase being 46 ppm ajid 3 ppm respectively » Comparison of 
other constituents in the analyses indicates there has been little varia- 
tion in the mineral quality of the ground waters sampled from the monitored 
wells « 

Ukiah Valley 

Ukiah Valley is the largest and most important alluvial area in 
Mendocino County, It is approximately 22 miles in length, attains a 
maximum width of about 5 miles, and occupies an area of about 65 square 
miles in the southeastern portion of the county. 

Recent alluvium, stream channel and terrace deposits comprise 
the major sources of ground water, Semiconsolidated sediments provide a 
secondary source, and the ■underlying sedimentary and metamorphic rocks 
yield a minor quantity of water, sometimes highly mineralised, to several 
springs in the area. 

The yield of wells varies considerably, depending upon the 
nature of the \inderlying materialn and ranges in the Recent alluvium 
from 50 to 200 gallons per minute. Relatively high yields are obtained 
from stream channel deposits along the major streams. These deposits, 
however, are limited in horizontal extent and attain a maximum thickness 
of only about 4O feet. Yield of wells in the terrace deposits ranges 
from negligible quantities to as much as 15 gallons per minute , 

Domestic and industrial water supplies in Ukiah Valley are 
obtained entirely from ground water. Irrigation water is also furnished 
from wells to some extent. In general, most of the irrigated land adjacent 
to the Russian River is supplied by direct diversion from the river or 



=■14- 



by shallow wells which derive their supply from underflow,, 

Quality of ground water in Ukiah Valley is extremely variable 
in character o Ground water adjacent to the river is calcium magnesium 
bicarbonate in type„ This water is excellent quality and is suitable 
for present beneficial uses. Wells and springs containing highly 
mineralized waters are found along the edges of the valley. The springs 
derive their flow from deep-seated juvenile water and are a source of 
degradation to the ground water supplies. 

The importance of ground water supply to the economy of this 
valley and the water quality problem resulting from commingling of the 
highly mineralized juvenile water with the good quality groimd water, 
resulted in the establishment of a monitoring network of 11 wells in 
this area„ Data for wells included in the monitoring network are presented 
in Appendix Ao Mineral analyses of samples collected from these wells are 
presented in Appendix Bo 

With the exception of one well (17N/12W-18A1), water samples 
collected from these wells generally contain total dissolved solids less 
than 400 parts per million , These wells are also low in boron and per 
cent sodium. Well No„ 17N/12W-18A1, however, located in the northern 
portion of Ukiah Valley contains water wherein a concentration of total 
dissolved solids of 1120 parts per million has been recorded, boron 
concentrations are as high as 73 parts per million, and sodium comprises 
85 per cent of the base constituents. This is an increase of 90 parts 
per million total dissolved solids and 18 parts per million of boron in 
water from this well since August, 1953 » The nine wells from which samples 
were collected both in 1953 and 1956 show little change in mineral 
concentrations . 



-15- 



Sanel Valley 

Sanel Valley is an irregularly shaped areaj containing about 
11,5 square miles, located in the southeastern portion of Mendocino 
County , 

The deposits of major importance as a source of ground water 
in Sanel Valley include the Recent alluvium, stream channel, and terrace 
deposits. Yields of wells range from 750 to 1250 gallons per minute in 
the stream channel deposits adjacent to the Russian River to as low as 
5 to 50 gallons per minute in the terrace deposits. 

Domestic water supplies for the area are derived from ground 
water, either from individual wells or from those of a water company 
which supplies a portion of the community of Hopland. Irrigation water 
for that portion of the valley not adjacent to the Russian River is almost 
exclusively supplied from ground water. 

Ground waters in Sanel Valley are characteristically magnesium 
calci\im bicarbonate in type, with total dissolved solids ranging from 
160 to 317 parts per million and^ generally, are suitable for most 
beneficial uses. However, ground water in some portions of the area 
contains up to 2,4 ppm of boron which restricts its use for irrigation 
of boron sensitive crops. 

Due to the importance of ground water supplies to the economy 
of this valley and the presence of boron in appreciable quantities, a 
monitoring network of 6 wells was established in the area. Data on 
wells included in the network are presented in Appendix A, 

A comparison of mineral analyses of samples collected in 1956 
and those collected in 1953 indicated no changes in nature or concentration 
of mineral constituents. Mineral analyses of samples obtained from the 
monitoring well network are presented in Appendix B, 

-16- 



San Francisco Bay Repjion (NOo 2) 

The San Francisco Bay Region includes all of the basins which 
drain into San Francisco^ San Pablo, and Suisun Bays below Antioch„ It 
includes parts of Marin, Sonoma, Napa, Santa Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa, 
San Mateo, and Solano Counties, and all of San Francisco County, The 
region is about 125 miles long, averages 45 miles in width and occupies 
an area of about 4,400 square miles. 

Eleven ground water basins have been identified in San Francisco 
Bay Region but only two, Livermore and Santa Clara Valleys, have thus far 
been included in the ground water monitoring program, Santa Clara Valley 
has been subdivided into two areas. East Bay and South Bay, for monitoring 
purposes. 
Santa Clara Valley, East Bay Area 

The East Bay Area of Santa Clara Valley comprises about 140 
square miles of alluvial land which lies between the base of the western 
slope of the Diablo Mountain Range and San Francisco Bay and extends from 
San Leandro Creek on the north to the Alameda-Santa Clara County line on 
the south. 

At least two separate aquifers can be differentiated in most 
parts of this area. Each of these aquifers consists of a series of 
permeable gravel beds, generally irregular and lenticular, and some sands. 
In the portion of this region north of Alvarado, ground water is derived 
from the San Leandro and San Lorenzo cones. In the San Leandro cone most 
pumping is from the upper aquifer, which comprises all sediments to a 
depth of about 200 feet. In the San Lorenzo cone, the upper 200 feet of 
sediments is also considered to be the upper aquifer and underlying water- 
bearing materials comprise the lower aquifer. Most irrigation, industrial, 
and municipal wells derive their water from the lower aquifer, 

.17= 



In the area between Alvarado and the Alameda-Santa Clara Coimty 
line^ ground water is derived from sediments of the Niles cone. The upper 
aquifer in this area has been degraded to such an extent by salt-water 
intrusion that the major portion of the present water supply is obtained 
from the lower aquifer which is found in the depth interval from 200 to 
300 feet. Yield of wells drawing water from both aquifers is highly 
variable. Limited data indicate that yields vary from 100 to more than 
800 gallons per minute from the upper aquifer and from 250 to 800 gallons 
per minute in the lower aquifer. 

Although some water is imported to the East Bay Area of Santa 
Clara Valley, the greater portion of irrigation and suburban water 
requirements are met by pumping from underlying ground waters. The 
northern portion of the area is largely developed for industrial, commercial 
and urban purposes, while the central and southern portions are devoted to 
agriculture, both irrigated and non- irrigated. Pumping draft on ground water 
resources of the area has increased to such an extent that ground water 
levels in the upper and lower aquifers remain perennially below sea level 
throughout a large portion of the area„ 

A serious water quality problem exists in the Niles cone area 
caused by the intrusion of saline waters into the fresh water aquifers 
adjacent to San Francisco Bay. Sea-water intrusion was first noted in 
this area in 1924 and at present the intrusion exists primarily in the 
upper aquifer. Some degradation in isolated areas has occurred in the 
lower aquifer apparently from downward movement of saline water from the 
upper aquifer. Direct intrusion of sea-water into the lower aquifer may 
possibly occur during periods when the normal seaward slope of the 
hydraulic gradient is reversed by overdraft conditions. 

In order to maintain continuous observations of the quality of 
ground water in the area subject to sea=water intrusion, a monitoring 

-18- 



netvrork of 12 wells vas established « Data on the monitor wells are presented 

in Appendix A„ Mineral analyses of samples from the monitored wells are 
presented in Appendix B„ Continued intrusion of sea-water is indicated by 
substantial increases in chloride concentration in four wells vriiich draw ' 
from the upper aquifer near Centervilleo Chloride concentration in water 
samples from well itS/l'W-29Ml increased from 238 ppm in 1953 to 1550 ppm in 
1955 and then decreased to 769 ppm in 1956o A gradual increase in chloride 
concentration from 137 ppm in 1953 to 1230 ppm in 1955 occurred in waters 
from well 4S/lW-29Qlo Chloride concentrations in water from well 4S/1W-30C3 
increased from 123 to 26l ppm in the period from August, 1953? to October , 
1955 o Water collected from this well in June, 1956, had a chloride concentra- 
tion of 1046 ppm„ The fourth well in the Centerville area showing a 
substantial increase in chloride concentrations is well No„ 4S/lW-31G2„ 
Chloride content in water from this well increased from 872 to 1759 ppm 
between 1954 and 1956 » Degraded water also occurs in the lower aquifer 
near Centerville where chloride concentration in waters from well 4S/1W-30K3 
increased from 352 ppm in 1953 to 1320 ppm in 1955 and then decreased to 
168 ppm in 19560 The reason for this decrease has not been determined o 
Santa Clara Valley, South Bay Area 

The South Bay Area of Santa Clara Valley reported herein comprises 
that portion of north Santa Clara Valley lying within Santa Clara County and 
extends from San Francisco Bay southerly to San Joseo The area is bounded 
on the west by the Santa Cruz mountains and on the east by the Diablo Range, 
The monitored area extends about 15 miles in an east-west direction and 
about 10 miles north to south. 

Water-bearing sediments of the Santa Clara Valley occupy the 
valley proper and some adjacent areas. The main source of ground water in 



„19. 



« 



Santa Clara Valley comprises alluvisil fan deposits^ and tideland deposits. 
Other sources include flood plain and marine swamp deposits. 

Available information indicates that both free and confined ground 
water exists in the present zones of pumping in Santa Clara Valley, The 
principal pumping aquifers in the monitored area exhibit pressure 
characteristics and are separated from the free ground water zone by 
relatively impervious strata which prevent hydraulic continuity with 
overlying water=bearing deposits , Depths of wells range from 150 to 800 
feet and pumping plants capable of delivering 1000 gpn exist in the valley. 

Ground water presently supplies about 95 per cent of the 
requirements of Santa Clara Valley, About 75 per cent of the water presently 
utilized is consumed in the production of irrigated crops. It is probable, 
however, that future development in the area included in the monitoring 
program will be largely urban. 

Ground water in limited areas of the eastern portion of Santa 
Clara Valley is unfit for prolonged irrigation. Ground water found in the 
Penitencia Creek cone contains relatively high concentrations of boron while 
that in a portion of the Silver and Dry Creek cones has a high magnesium 
content. Water of questionable quality also occurs in the fringes of the 
tide-land area adjacent to San Francisco Bay, Waters that have been monitored 
in the remainder of the area are nearly always of good quality and suitable 
for most uses. 

Investigations made tgr the Department of Water Resources disclosed 
that the normal seaward slope of the hydraulic gradient in the pressure 
aquifer was reversed at times due to excessive lowering of ground water levels 
during the dry season^ causing a potential threat of degradation due to sea= 
water intrusion. For these reasons the area was included in the monitoring 



-20- 



program for continued obsei^ationo The present program consists of a 
monitoring network of 26 wells <> Data on monitored wells are presented in 
Appendix A, 

Mineral analyses of samples obtained from the monitored wells 
are presented in Appendix Bo Comparison of these analyses shows no significant 
change in quality characteristics of the ground water in the monitored area 
during 1955-1956« The maximum chloride concentration observed was 515 ppm in 
June, 1955, in water from well No. 6S/2W-9G1« 
Livermore Valley 

Livermore Valley lies, for the most part, in the eastern portion 
of Alameda County with a minor area extending into Contra Costa County. 
The valley floor is about 14 miles in length from east to west, varies 
from three to six miles in width, and comprises an area of about 65 square 
miles. 

Livermore Valley is a structural basin developed in a syncline 
with an axis trending nearly east-west in direction. The floor of Livermore 
Valley is covered by alluvial, lake and swamp deposits. 

Free ground water generally exists throughout Livermore Valley, 
A pressure area, however, is formed in the vicinity of Pleasanton by at 
least four defined layers of blue clay alternating with gravel beds. 
Average yield of irrigation wells in the pressure area is about 500 gallons 
per minute, with individual wells yielding as high as 2000 gpm at depths 
of 300 feet or less. 

Ground water supplies nearly all of the water requirements of 
Livermore Valley. The principal uses of ground water are irrigation, 
industrial, and urban, with irrigation constituting the greatest present 
requirement o 

Due to the dependence on ground water supplies and the presence 



-21- 



of boron in harmful soncentrationSj, a monitoring program was established 
in Livermcre Valley. This program in 1955 and 1956^ comprised the collection 
and analysis of -water samples from 32 wells o Data for these wells are 
presented in Appendix A, 

Ground waters in the sentral and southern portion of the valley 
are replenished from percolation of good quality flood waters and, in 
generals contain total dissolved solids of less than 400 ppm, and boron 
concentrations of 0<,5 ppai« Total hardness is generally less than 300 ppm„ 

Ground water in the northern and eastern portions of Livermore 
Valley contains higher cone en-crat ions of total dissolved solids and boron^ 
and is generally of a harder nature „ Boron is particularly notable in 
this regard and is often present in excess of 2o0 ppm in well waters in the 
eastern portion of the valley. Ground water with high boron concentration 
usually contains high concentrations of total dissolved solids j, and 
chlorides o Occurrence of harmful concentrations of boron has caused economic 
loss because wells have had to be abandoned and damage has resulted to soils 
and crops o Comparison of anaQ.yses for samples collected between 1953 and 
1956 indicates some cyclic change in mineral concentration but no defiriite 
trend is yet apparent o Mineral analyses of samples collected during the 
reporting period are presented in Appendix Bo 

Nitrate concentrations in water from several wells in the vicinity 
of the City of Livarmore exceed the limit recommended tsj the Sta-.e Department 
of Public Health, 

Central Coastal Region (No. 3) 
The Central Coastal Region extends from the southern boundary of 
Pescadero Creek Basin, in Santa Cruz County, to the northeastern bo\indary 
of Rincon Creek Basin in Ventura County, It averages about 50 miles in 



« 



=^<i= 



vd.dth and occupies an area of approximately 11,000 square miles „ 

Valley areas in the Central Coastal Region receive only light to 
moderate rainfall, and depend largely on ground water as a source of supply. 
Approximately 90 per cent of the water supply of this region, especially 
that used for irrigation, is obtained from ground water sources. 

Nineteen ground water basins, eighteen of which support an 
intensive agricultural economy, have been identified in the Central Coastal 
Region, To date, five ground water basins or areas have been included in 
the ground water quality monitoring program for this region » 
Pa.jaro Valley 

The Pajaro Valley area comprises about 75 square miles of the 
Pajaro River Drainage Basin o This valley consists of the drainage area 
of the Pajaro River below Pajaro Gap, including the northern extremity of 
Monterey County, a small part of the northwestern corner of San Benito 
County, and the southern portion of Santa Cruz County, 

Principal ground water aquifers of the Pajaro Valley area are 
composed of continental and marine sediments with overlying blue clay 
deposits that act as confining strata to the primary aquifers of the pressure 
zones. The ground water basin underlying Pajaro Valley includes two confined 
ground water bodies which underlie the valley floor, and a free ground water 
body which overlies the confined ground waters. An unconfined ground water 
body underlying the bench lands adjacent to the valley serves as a forebay 
to the confined aquifers. 

Nearly all the water for irrigated lands in the area and a 
substantial portion of the water utilized by the City of Watsonville for 
municipal purposes is pumped from the confined ground water bodies. Because 
of the potential threat of sea-water intrusion into ground waters adjacent 



-23- 



to Monterey Bay, Pajaro Valley was included in the ground water quality 
monitoring program,, During the years 1955 and 1956 the monitoring program 
in this area consisted of the collection of samples from 24 wells = Data 
for the monitored wells are presented in Appendix Ao 

Mineral analyses of samples from monitored wells are presented in 
Appendix Bo Ground waters from Pajaro Valley contain moderate concentrations 
of calcium and bicarbonates and low concentrations of magnesium^ sodium and 
bororxo Chlorides are not present in significant amounts in ground waters 
of Pajaro Valley^ except in a limited zone of marine intrusion adjacent to 
Monterey Bay. This intrusion occurs as highly saline perched water and is 
a threat to the quality of underlying ground water supplies o 

Comparison of analyses for the period of record shows little 
change in quality characteristics ,, except for a gradual increase in 
chloride concentration in water samples from several wells o Chloride 
concentrations increased in well No„ ±2S/1E='10H1 from 276 ppm in June, 1955^ 
to 35? ppm in November, 1955 o Wells No„ 13S/2E=7B1 and No. 13S/2E-7B2 showed 
chloride concentrations of 396 ppm and 620 ppm respectively in June^ 1955 s 
and increased to 458 ppm and 762 ppm in November j 1955 <• 
Salinas Valley 

Salinas Valley is approximately 80 miles long, varies from two 
to ten miles in widths and contains 660 square miles of highly productive 
irrigated and dry- farm lauidso The ground water basin which underlies this 
valley is the largest in the Central Coastal Region o 

The valley fill of the lower Salinas Basin^ comprising those 
lands flanking the Salinas River below Wunpost, is an extensive body of 
alluvium with considerable ground water storage capacity. 

Alluvial and terrace deposits, composed of gravel, sand, silt 



=24" 



I 
II 



I 



and clay in various combinations, cover Salinas Valley in thicknesses up to 300 
feet. Alluvial fans occur along both sides of the valley vdth those on the 
west side generally having the steeper slope „ The alluvium and terrace materials 
provide the principal supply of ground vfater to shallow wells throughout the 
lower basin o It is probable that most deep wells in Salinas Valley principally 
extract ground water from sediments of the Paso Robles formation,. In the lower 
basin near Salinas, beds of blue clay exist of sufficient thickness and areal 
extent to confine the groxind water in the underlying aquifers. 

The only source of irrigation wa-cer supply in Salinas Valley is 
the ground water reservoir formed by the valley alluvium. The high degree of 
agricultural development on the valley floor lands, from Monterey Bay southerly 
to San Ardo, results from the availability of ground water resources in this 
areao The yield of wells in the area varies from approximately 200 gpm to 
over 3,000 gpm. 

Ground waters in Salinas Valley may be grouped by mineral 
characteristics into three broad classes as to sources (l) those coming 
principally from Santa Lucia Range, (2) those from Diablo Range, and (3) those 
resulting from commingling of water from both sources. Ground waters recharged 
from runoff from the Santa Lucia Range vary in quality from excellent to good, 
those recharged from Diablo Range vary from fair to unusable, while those 
recharged from commingling of both sources range from good to fair. 

The ground water quality monitoring program for Salinas Valley is 
concerned primarily with the lower portion of the valley in close proximity 
to Monterey Bay, In this area a serious ground water problem, caused by 
intrusion of sea water into overdrawn fresh water aquifers, exists » Intrusion 
extended 1-3/4 miles inland from the bay shore in 1945, and covered an area 
of approximately 6,000 acres o Many of the wells within the area contained 



=25- 



water which was either \infit for irrigation or near the upper limit for safe 
usee Data from monitored wells in Salinas Valley are presented in Appendix A. 

Mineral analyses of samples collected from monitored wells during 
1955 and 1956 are presented in Appendix B„ Comparison of analyses of samples 
collected from most wells during this period shows no significant change in 
mineral characteristics o Howeverj in well No„ I6S/4E-24BI5 concentration of 
total dissolved solids increased from 1080 to 1470 ppm between Julyj 1955 and 
August J 19560 The increase appears to be fairly uniformly distributed among 
the several constituents tested^ although nitrate concentration in water 
from this well increased significantly from 33 ppm to 111 ppm between the 
above mentioned dates o In contrast to the just cited instance, a decrease in 
total dissolved solids was noted in analyses of water from several wells. 
Most notable among these is well Noo 18S/6E^1M1 where total dissolved solids 
decreased from 1100 ppm to 7A1 ppm between August. 1953, and July, 1956. 
Carmel Valley 

Carmel Valley^ an area of about three thousand acres of valley 
floor land, is located approximately four miles south of the city of Monterey, 
It is a long alluvl\im filled valley, extending eastward from the coast a 
distance of 23 miles „ The portion of the groiind water basin underlying Carmel 
Valley included in the monitoring program is situated near the City of Carmel, 

Ground water occurs in unconsolidated alluvium, which averages 
about 100 feet in thickness and attains a maximum thickness of approximately 
125 feet adjacent to the coast. The alluvium consists mainly of sand and 
gravel with small discontinuous lenses of silt or clay. 

Practically all the valley, except for a small lagoon, is utilized 
for truck crops. Numerous wells throughout the valley supply local domestic 
and irrigation needs. 



=26» 



A seaward hydraulic gradient exists over the entire basin and there 
is at present no evidence of degraded groiind water in the basin. The (' 
possibility of sea- water intrusion into the fresh water aquifer near Carmel 
Bay, however, prompted the inclusion of this area in the ground water quality 
monitoring program since „ as in other coastal basins., saline intrusion could 
occur if the present seaward hydraulic gradient were reversed, 3 

In 1955 and 1956 water samples were collected from eight wells 
which are situated in the coastal segment of the valley o Data on these wells 
are presented in Appendix A„ 

Mineral analyses of samples collected from these wells are 
presented in Appendix B, The ground waters of Carmel Valley are of calcium 
bicarbonate type and are generally of excellent mineral quality „ There was 
no significant variation in mineral characteristics of water sampled from the 
wells during the period of record, and no evidence of sea water intrusion. 
Santa Maria Valley 

Santa Maria Valley forms an area of about 25,000 acres of rich 
agricultural soils. It lies in portions of San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara 
Counties. The valley is intensively farmed to numerous varieties of irrigated 
truck and field crops. 

Santa Maria Valley is bounded on the north by the San Rafael Mountains 
and on the south by the Solomon and Casmalia Hills. These ranges are composed 
of essentially nonwater-bearing rocks, which also underlie the Santa Maria 
Valley and bound it on the north, east and south. The valley area consists 
mostly of broad terraced uplamds and alluvial plains adjacent to the Santa 
Maria and Sisquoc Rivers. Beneath the uplands, and the plains lying along the 
flanks of the ranges, are the unconsolidated or water-bearing materials which 
have been deposited on the consolidated rocks. These unconsolidated deposits 



-27- 



I 



attain a maximum thickness of about 3;iOOO feet and contain a single large body 
of ground water^ A pprtion of the gro\ind water zone, near the coast, is 
confined beneath a layer of silt and clay covering an area of about 30,000 
acreso Ground water throughout the remainder of the Santa Maria area is 
unconfinedo Recent alluvium is the most permeable of the unconsolidated 
deposits and yields water to many wells at rates of more than 1^000 gallons 
per minute per well. 

Ground water supplies nearly all the irrigated acreage, the major 
industries and all of the public water supply systems in the area. Irrigated 
truck farming makes the greatest demand upon the ground water reservoir. 
Ground water supplies are used in oil field operations and in all refining 
processes at manufacturing plants in Guadalupe and Santa Maria, 

Santa Maria Valley is one of the principal petroleum producing 
and refining areas in the Central Coastal Region. Most of the brine waste 
water produced in this field is disposed of by pipe line to the ocean. There 
exists, however, the possibility of degradation of ground water by accidental 
spillage, defective casings, or improper use of siuEps. Accordingly, this 
area has been included in the ground water quality monitoring program. 

During 1955 and 1956 samples were collected from fifteen wells 
in Santa Maria Valley. Data on these wells are presented in Appendix A. 

Analyses of samples from the monitored wells are presented in 
Appendix B. Ground water of -Santa Maria Valley is similar in quality to water 
of the Santa Maria River, which contains a blend of high concentrations of 
sulfates from Cuyama River and low total mineral solubles from Sisquoc River. 
Total dissolved solids range from 600 to 1,000 ppm. Chlorides are about 10 
to 700 ppm. Comparison of analyses indicates there was no significant variation 
in mineral characteristics of water during the four-year period 1953-1956. 



-28- 



' 



Cuyama Valley 

Cuyama Valley is a broad alluvial plain, about 12 miles long and 
five miles in width, situated in the midcourse of the Cuyama River, It occupies 
portions of four countiesj Santa Barbara, Ventura, Kern, and San Luis ObispOo 

Unconsolidated clay, silt and gravel, 3000 to 4000 feet in total 
thickness, compose the alluvium, terrace deposits, and older continental de- 
posits that supply nearly all the water to irrigation wells » Available data 
indicate that the development of ground water for irrigation increased from 
essentially nothing in 1938 to about 40 wells that irrigated more than 5,000 
acres in 1946, 

The discovery of three major oil fields, Morales „ Russel Ranch, 
and South Cuyama, during 1948, changed the economy of Cuyama Valley, which 
prior to that time was almost totally agricultural. As in other areas in the 
State, the development of oil fields and production of oil and waste water 
poses problems in connection with maintenance of the quality of ground water 
supplies, A ground water monitoring program was established to detect any 
changes in the quality of ground waters which may be due to operations of 
the newly developed oil fields or to other causes. 

Observation wells selected for inclusion in the monitoring program 
are situated throughout the valley, including areas where there are no oil 
field operations at present. This widespread observation grid was established 
since available data indicated that many natural springs within the valley 
produce water much inferior in quality to that obtained from river-fed 
underground reservoirs. It is believed that water from this source should 
also be considered as a potential degradant and that areas receiving inflow 
from this source should be monitored. Data on the monitored wells are 
presented in Appendix A, 



-29- 



Ground water in Cuyama Valley is only fair in quality and is generally 
high in total dissolved solids. In general the water is hard and quite high in 
sulfate. Calcium and magnesium are the predominent cations. Ground water in 
some portions of the valley contains high concentrations of boron. Although 
containing relatively large amounts of dissolved solids, most of the waters can be 
used for irrigation since total dissolved solids are comprised largely of 
calcium and sulfate ions„ These two ions precipitate readily in the soil 
solution and are less harmful than salts which do not have these characteristics » 

Mineral analyses of water from the monitored wells are presented in 
Appendix B, A study of the analyses of samples collected during this reporting 
period indicated there was no significant variation in quality in most of the 
sampled wells. However, there was a slight increase in concentrations of 
sodium and chloride in well No„ 10N/27W-11C1 o Sodium content of water from 
this well increased from 319 ppm in August, 1955* to 336 ppm in June^ 1956, 
and chlorides increased from 6/+ to 90 ppm during the same period. 

Los Angeles Region (No„ U) 
The Los Angeles Region is bounded on the north by the south- 
eastern boundary of Rincon Creek Basin in Ventura County and on the south by 
the Los Angeles-Orange County boundary, a distance of approximately 100 miles. 
It extends from the Pacific Ocean inland to the drainage divide, an average distance 
of 50 miles, and includes an area of approximately 4^260 square miles. Broad 
coastal plains and inland valleys cover about one-half of the area, the balance 
being foothills and rugged mountainous areas. 

The Los Angeles Region includes most of the highly developed Los 
Angeles Metropolitan Area, and the major portion of Ventura County. This J 
region includes areas devoted to agriculture, and within metropolitan areas 
includes extensive residential developments and a large, rapidly growing 
industrial complex. 

-30- 



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Within the Los Angeles Region, 14 groxmd water basins and 40 sub- 
basins have been identified« At present, however, only five basins or sub- 
basins are included in the monitoring program. They are Oxnard Plain Basin, 
Main San Gabriel Basin, Central Coastal Plain Pressure Area, Los Angeles 
Forebay Area , and West Coast Basino The West Coast Basin contains three 
monitoring areas s Athens Area^ Torrance Area, and the Area of sea-water 
intrusion o 

Oxnard Plain Basin 

Oxnard Plain Basin is located in the coastal portion of Ventura 
County^ extending about 10 miles along the coast with an average width of 
about 5 miles, and includes an area of about 46,400 acres. The basin is 
bounded on the north by the Santa Clara River, on the east by the foothills, 
and on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, 

Extensive alluvial deposits known as the "Oxnard Aquifer" constitute 
the principal source of ground water in the Oxnard Plain Basin, The economy 
of the area is supported by irrigated agriculture and allied packing and pro- 
cessing plants, oil production and refining, and military establishments. No 
imported water is used in this area, the entire supply being secured from 
local resources. 

This area was included in the ground water monitoring program in 
order to observe changes in the quality of groiind water which result from 
intrusion of sea water, and to determine the extent of saline advance in the 
vicinity of Port Hueneme, Data on wells included in the program are presented 
in Appendix A, 

Mineral analyses of samples obtained from monitored wells are 
presented in Appendix B. Predominant ions in the waters of the monitoring 
dwells are calcium and sulfate. Total dissolved solids concentrations exceeding 

-31= 



the drinking water standards were found in water from wells lN/22¥=21Lly 
1N/22W=21L2, and 1N/22W=3F4, with concentrations of 4697= 3261, and 1091 ppm, 
respectively o The first two wells are municipal wells east of the City of 
Port Hueneme and the last well is in the City of Oxnardo 

Total dissolved solids in the ground water from remaining monitor 
wells varied between 756 and 956 ppmo Increases in total dissolved solids 
were generally noted in the well waters during the four years, from 1953 
through 19560 However^ in some cases ^ small decreases were noted « Water from 
the two municipal wells east of the City of Port Hueneme showed an increased 
concentration of total dissolved solids of 3;798 and 2^396 ppm, in two years. 
The character of the water in these two wells was calcium chloride while water 
from the other monitoring wells in the basin contained, in generalj, calcium 
sulfate waters o 

Chloride concentrations were 25,134 and 982 ppm in water from wells 
1N/22W-21L1 and 1N/22W=-21L2„ respectivelyo These two wells were the only on«s 
in the monitoring program where the chloride concentrations were above the 
recommended limit for domestic use„ The highest chloride concentration in water 
from ths other monitoring wells did not exceed 58 ppm, although small increases 
in chlorides were noticed in waters from most wells. Percent sodium in water 
from the monitoring wells varied between 9 and 36. The highest concentration of 
fluorid« was 1,3 ppm at well 1N/22W-19B35. located northwest of Port Hueneme in 
the sand dunes about one-quarter mile from the ocean. Well 1N/22W-7D1 located 
one-half mile from the ocean contained waters with a fluoride concentration of 
1,1 ppm. The highest nitrate concentration in waters analyzed was 22 ppm 
from well 1N/22W»3F4 in the center of the City of Oxnard, 

Ground waters in the monitored portion of Oxnard Plain are very hardj 
the total hardness varying between 388 and 595 ppm. The above range excludes 



-32= 



the two municipal wells in Port Hueneme where the hardness is 1,758 and 3^300 ppm. 
Concentrations of sulfates ranged between 345 and 536 ppm, which exceeds the 
recommended limit of 250 ppm in the United States Public Health Service Drinking 
Water Standards , 
West Coast Basin 

West Coast Basin is located in the southern part of Los Angeles 
County. It is bounded on the north by the Ballona Gap, and on the east by the 
Newport-Inglewood fault structure, which cuts through the Baldwin Hills, 
Dominguez Hills, and Signal Hill„ The western boundary is the coast line of 
Santa Monica Bay, San Pedro Bay, and the divide of the Palos Verdes Hills « The 
basin is about 19 miles long, has an average width of 9 miles, and includes an 
area of 101,000 acres. About 80 per cent of the surface is a gently rolling, 
slightly eroded marine plain, while bordering highlands constitute the remainder 
of the area. Surface elevations range from sea level to almost 1,500 feet above 
sea level. 

The West Coast Basin has experienced radical changes in economy in 
the last 20 years. Cultural development of this basin has changed from that of 
a typically agricultural area to that of a highly developed metropolitan and 
industrial area. Oil refining, aircraft, and related industries are concentrated 
in this basin. Population has increased from 317,000 in 1940 to 549,600 in 
1950, a 70 per cent increase. 

Development of the area has resulted in increasing demands upon the 
ground water supply. The subsequent overdraft of the basin has necessitated 
importing additional water supplies. Despite the importation of water from the 
Owens River system and the Colorado River to West Coast Basin, the overdraft 
conditions still exist. 

The threefold purpose of the program in the West Coast Basin is to 
monitor (l) the Area of Sea-Water Intrusion; (2) the effects of industrial waste 

-33- 



discharges on ground water quality in the Torrance area., and (3) the effects 
of industrial waste discharges on ground water quality in the Athens area. For 
clarity, each of these areas is discussed separately. 

Area of Sea-Water Intrusion o There are several distinct aquifers 
in the West Coast Basin merging about 1 mile inland from the coast at Santa 
Monica Bay. As a result, one continuous aquifer extends outward from the coast 
and under Santa Monica Bay, Extensive pumping in the inland areas has reduced 
the pressure near the above line, in these aquifers reversing the natural 
seaward gradient. Ground water supplies near the shore became noticeably 
saline, with chloride concentrations above 18,000 ppm in some wells, as ocean 
water intruded into the aquifer designated as the "Merged 400-Foot Gravel and 
Silverado Water=Bearing Zone" . 

Wells used in this program to monitor sea-water intrusion from El 
Segundo south to Redondo Beach penetrate, and are perforated in, the "Merged 
400-Foot Gravel and Silverado Water-Bearing Zone" . Some wells reported 
previously have been abandoned, requiring changes in the monitoring program; 
well 3S/14W-30H2 has been substituted for well 3S/14W-30H1, and well 3S/15W-12G1 
has been substituted for well 3S/l5W-12G2o These additional monitor wells are 
adjacent to those previously reported. Data on wells included in the monitoring 
program are presented in Appendix A, 

Since 1950, the Los Angeles County Flood Control District has 
conducted experiments in injection of treated Colorado River water into the 
water-bearing zone through wells in order to retard and prevent sea-water 
intrusion in the Manhattan Beach-Hermosa Beach area. This project, which has 
been extended beyond the experimental stage, has achieved success in preventing 
sea=water intrusion in the localized area of the former experimental project. 
Nine injection wells have been in almost continuous operation since 1953 « Lines 
of equal chloride concentration plotted for the region indicate that the line of 



-34' 



I 



:: 



injection wells, located about 2,000 feet inland, has retarded sea-water 
intrusion landward of the wells, but intrusion is continuing far inland on 
either end of the recharge area. Monitoring well 3S/14W-30H2 is in the area 
protected by the recharge water. Well 3S/14W-31A1 is in the region of 
intrusion by-passing the recharge line. 

Mineral analyses of water from the monitored wells are presented in 
Appendix B. These analyses indicate that the highest chloride concentration, 
285 ppm, was noted in water from well 3S/15W-12G1. This well was not included 
in the previous report because of the extreme fluctuation in chloride concentra- 
tion of as much as 200 to 300 percent; however, the nearest monitoring well 
3S/15W-13R2, had chloride concentrations ranging up to 279 ppm during this 
reporting period. This was an increase of about 50 ppm since the previous 
monitoring period. Increases in chlorides were noted in the other monitoring 
wells also. The per cent sodium in the monitored wells increased slightly 
during 1955 and 1956. 

Torrance Area , This area occupies approximately 45 square miles of 
the coastal plain and is bordered by 190th Street on the north. Pacific Coast 
Highway on the south. Main Street on the east, and the Pacific Ocean on the 
west. The area is extensively developed with industries engaged in oil 
piimping, oil refining, and related activities. Six wells are used to monitor 
the effect of industrial waste discharges on ground water quality in this area. 
Data on these wells are presented in Appendix A, 

Mineral analyses of water obtained from the monitored wells are 
presented in Appendix B„ The highest total dissolved solids found was 1,32? ppm 
with values of about 400 ppm common in the western side of the Torrance area. 
No trend in total dissolved solids was discernible between 1953 and 1956. In 
1956 water from well 4S/13W-6Q1 had the highest chlorides. The range in 



-35- 



chloride concentration vra.s between 78 and 195 ppm. No increase in chloride 
concentration was noted in waters from the sampled wells during this reporting 
period. The per cent sodium in the ground waters increased. In general, the 
ground waters are suitable for both domestic and agricultural use, although 
some of the waters are very hard. 

Athens Area . This area comprises about 50 square miles located 
northeast of the City of Gardena and includes the Rosecrans Oil Field. A 
cooperative industrial waste survey of the area was made by a committee 
comprised of representatives of interested agencies and political entities. 
The survey revealed evidence that past discharges of industrial wastes had 
contributed to the pollution of ground water in the area. The purpose of the 
monitoring program in this area is to determine the effects of industrial 
waste discharges on ground water quality. 

The monitoring program in the Athens area comprises five wells. 
Data on these wells are presented in Appendix A, 

Mineral analyses of water from the monitor wells are presented in 
Appendix B. Total dissolved solids in the well waters ranged from 346 ppm 
to 1,170 ppm during 1955-1956. The highest concentration was found in water 
from well 3S/14W-22R2 where total dissolved solids decreased from 1,170 ppm 
in 1955 to 715 ppm in 1956. Total dissolved solids in the water from other .' 
wells decreased as much as 350 ppm during the two-year reporting period. 

Chloride concentration in waters from well 3S/14W-22R2 ranged 
between 183 and 403 ppm during 1955 and 1956 and at times exceeded the limits 
recommended for drinking water. Water from this well decreased in chloride 

concentration from 403 ppm in 1955 to 183 ppm in 1956. Decreasing chloride \ 

I 

concentrations were also noted in other well waters. Nitrates have increased 

in the water from all the monitoring wells. The largest increase noted was in 



-36- 



I 



water from well 3S/14W-19K1 where nitrates increased from 45 ppm in 1955 to 

70 ppm a year later. These concentrations of nitrates are in excess of the 

limit recommended for domestic use. The water in well 3S/14W-22R2 is very hard. 

Total hardness varied between 521 and 320 ppm during this reporting period. 

In this monitored area the ground water is generally improving in quality with 

the exception of increasing nitrates. 

Central Coastal Plain Pressure Area 
and Los Angeles Forebay Area 

The Central Coastal Plain Pressure Area and Los Angeles Forebay 
Area form a roughly triangular area of approximately 220 square miles, 
extending about 15 miles along the Los Angeles-Orange Coiinty line and about 
25 miles northwesterly to the vicinity of the Santa Monica Mountains and San 
Rafael Hills. The siirface of the area is a gently rolling, slightly eroded 
marine plain. 

Groxind water is unconfined and occurs at relatively shallow depths 
in the Los Angeles Forebay Area. Clay strata overlying the aquifers in the 
Central Coastal Plain Pressure Area confine the ground waters under hydrostatic 
pressure. Imported water from Owens Valley and the Colorado River supplements 
the ground water supply in this area. 

Much of the industrial economy of the Los Angeles Region is 
situated within the Los Angeles Forebay Area and the northern portion of the 
Central Coastal Plain Pressure Area. Remaining portions of these areas are 
largely comprised of residential and commercial developments, with some 
agriculture in the southern portion of the Central Coastal Plain Pressure 
Area. Several active oil fields are located in these areas. 

An investigation of industrial waste pollution of water wells in 
the southeast portion of metropolitan Los Angeles was conducted by the Los 
Angeles Regional Water Pollution Control Board in 1950. The water from the 



-37- 



thirty-three water wells was found to have hydrocarbon tastes and odors and/or 
increased mineralization „ Although findings in the above investigation were 
not conclusive, the data indicates that the source of degradation was waste 
discharges which eventually migrated to the deeper water-bearing zone, possibly 
via defective or abandoned wells. These waste discharges have been discontinued 
and six wells in the area have been included in the monitoring program in order 
to observe the duration of the degradation effects of past discharges. Data 
on the wells included in the monitoring program are presented in Appendix A. 

Mineral analyses of waters from monitored wells are presented in 
Appendix B, Waters in these wells are calcium bicarbonate in character. Total 
dissolved solids ranged from 371 to 522 ppm, averaging 440 ppm. Slight increases 
were noted in total dissolved solids, during the past two years, in water from 
most of the wells. The highest chloride concentration was 100 ppm in water 
from well 2S/13W-28N2, Slight increases in chloride concentrations were noted 
in waters sampled from all wells in the monitoring program. Increase in the 
per cent sodium was recorded in water from most wells. Ground waters were of 
good quality for domestic and irrigation use; however, these waters are very 
hard, with total hardness ranging generally between 200 and 638 ppm. 
Main San Gabriel Basin 

San Gabriel Basin is located in eastern Los Angeles County and 
includes approximately 73,400 acres of valley land lying between the San Gabriel 
Mountains and the Merced and Puente Hills. The basin extends about 15 miles 
along the base of the San Gabriel Moiintains and is about 10 miles wide. 

This valley was, in the past, extensively developed as an 
agricultural area. In recent years, however, there has been a remarkable 
increase in residential and industrial development, which has all but replaced 
the agricultural economy. 



-38- 



( 



Increasing demand for water, created by continued development, and 
reuse of water has resulted in an area of potential adverse salt balance. 
The purpose of the monitoring program in this basin is to detect the existence 
of any adverse salt balance and to locate areas of water quality problems. 
Data on monitored wells are presented in Appendix Ac Mineral analyses of samples 
obtained from the monitored wells are presented in Appendix B. 

Predominant ions in the waters of the monitoring wells were calcium 
and bicarbonate, except in well 1S/12W-10E1, which contained sodium bicarbonate 
water, and well IS/IOW-I9NI3 which contained a calcium-sodium sulfate water. 
Total dissolved solids in the water from the monitored wells ranged between 
112 and 870 ppm„ Comparison of analyses showed that there was an increase in 
the total dissolved solids in all the water samples collected during the period. 
Analyses of water from well 1S/10W-19N1, the well with the high value of total 
dissolved solids, show an increase in dissolved solids from 506 ppm in 1954 to 
870 ppm in 1956. 

Chlorides varied between 4 and 220 ppm in the monitored waters 
during the two year period, 1955 to 1956, Increases in chlorides were noted 
in most of the well waters although some decreases were noted. Nitrate concen- 
tration in well No, IS/lOW-lOCl was 64 ppm, which is above the recommended 
limit for domestic use set by the State Department of Public Health, Analyses 
show a steady increase of sodium from 10 per cent in 1954 to 39 per cent in 
1956 in well No, lS/l0W~19Nlo The highest flour*ide concentration of water 
samples in the area was 1,2 ppm at well 1S/2W-10E1, No trend in flouride 
concentration could be determined. In general, ground waters in the basin 
are suitable for both irrigation and domestic uses; the exception being the 
waters in well IS/lOW-lOCl which are considered unsuitable for domestic use 
due to the concentration of nitrates. 



-39- 



Central Valley Region (No, 5) 

The Central Valley Region extends from the California-Oregon line 
southward to the Tehachapi Mountains and from the crest of the coastal range 
on the west to the crest of the Sierra Nevada on the east. It averages 120 
miles in width and is more than 500 miles in length. Because of its size and 
economic importance the Central Valley Area has been termed the "Great Basin" 
of California, It occupies an area of approximately 59,000 square miles, and 
includes about 38 per cent of the land surface and nearly 44 per cent of the 
valley and mesa lands of the state. 

The portion of the Great Basin which lies north of an east-west 
line drawn just south of the City of Sacramento is known as the Sacramento 
Valley, The valley comprises an area of approximately 5000 square miles and 
contains the second largest ground water reservoir in the State, 

The San Joaquin Valley comprises about 6,300,000 acres of 
irrigable soils and extends from south of Bakersfield to the vicinity of 
Stockton on the north. About two-thirds of the valley floor area of the Great 
Basin is included in the San Joaquin Valley, The alluvium which provides 
the ground water storage space \inderlying this valley comprises the largest 
ground water reservoir in the State, 

Ground water in the Central Valley Region is stored primarily in 
the extensive sand and gravel deposits which underlie the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin Valleys, Appreciable quantities also occur in the fractured 
metamorphic and granitic rocks of the upland and mountainous areas. 

Twenty-nine ground water basins have been identified in the Central 
Valley Region. Upper Lake Valley and Kelseyville Valley in Lake County and 
portions of the basin which underlies the floor of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin Valley have been included in the monitoring program. The Sacramento 



-40- 



' 



and San Joaquin Valleys contain the largest bodies of usable ground water in 
the State. Ground water has been extensively developed, especially in the San 
Joaquin Valley, for irrigation and numerous other beneficial uses including 
municipal, domestic, and industrial. Large scale planned development and 
utilization of the ground water storage space underlying the Central Valley, 
and the presence of niimerous potential causes of water quality impairment, 
require that constant vigilance be maintained to assure the continued 
usefulness of this important source of water supply. 

The quality characteristics of ground waters of the Central Valley 
area are very similar to those of the surface waters which are the sources 
of replenishment. Ground waters in basins recharged from east side streajns 
have low concentrations of mineral solubles and are of excellent mineral 
quality. East side ground waters are predominantly calcitim bicarbonate in 
type and contain total dissolved solids in amounts ranging from about 100 to 
400 parts per million. Boron is generally found in concentrations less than 
0.1 parts per million, and per cent sodium is about 40„0, However, some east 
side wells yielding water from depths greater than 1,100 feet often produce 
highly mineralized water. 

Ground waters from the west side of San Joaquin Valley are 
predominantly calcium and sodium sulfate type waters and contain concentrations 
of total dissolved solids ranging from about 800 to 2,000 parts per million. 
The deeper wells yield water of the poorest quality and water temperatures as 
high as 114°F have been recorded, Sodiiim in these well waters is frequently 
in the order of 80 to 90 per cent of base constituents and boron is often 
present in quantities considered extremely toxic to plants. Nearly all west 
side ground waters have a brackish taste and may be unpalatable. 

Calcium and magnesium are the dominant cations in waters in the 
east side and also to a large degree in ground water of the west side. They 



-a- 



are, however c, generally subordinated by sodium toward the trough of the Central 
Valley from Sutter Basin south to Buena Vista Lake, west of Bakersfield. 
Chloride is often the principal anion in the trough of the Central Valley from 
Sutter Basin south to Buena Vista Lake^ west of Bakersfield. Chloride is often 
the principal anion in the trough area of the San Joaquin Valley^ and ground 
waters between depths of about 300 feet and 1^000 feet generally are lower in 
mineral content than are waters found at shallower depths. 

Upper Lake Valley, Lake County 

Upper Lake Valley borders on and lies north of Clear Lake, The 
valley extends about seven miles northerly from the shore line, and includes 
an area of about 10j,500 acres. 

Geologic formations of Upper Lake Valley include sediments, beds 
of volcanic fragments vriiich are probably the same age as the sediments, and 
clays, sands and gravels, including recent alluvium. Both free and confined 
water conditions are found in Upper Lake Valley. Confined water exists 
beneath a blanket of sandy and silty clay which acts as a capping bed for an 
artesian aquifer of sand and gravel. 

Wells in Upper Lake Valley yield an average of 340 gallons per 
minute in the free ground water zone and about 230 gallons per minute in the 
confined water zone. 

There is moderate to extensive development of ground water in 
Upper Lake Valley for irrigation, domestic and stock watering needs and only 
limited development for municipal and industrial needs. The valley is devoted 
primarily to irrigated and dry-farmed lands growing fruit and miscellaneous 
field crops. 

Upper Lake Valley was included in the monitoring program because 
of the presence of high boron which, in the future, may become a general 



-42- 



I 



f 



f 



problem, in the western and southern portions of the valley. Data on the 
monitored wells are presented in Appendix Ao 

Mineral analyses of samples collected from the monitored wells are 
presented in Appendix B. 

There are no major water quality problems known in Upper Lake 
Valley, other than the relatively high boron content of some wells. Geological 
information indicates that the boron probably originates from juvenile water 
which rises to the surface from great depths through geological faults and 
fissures. 

A study of the analyses of samples collected from the monitored 
wells reveals little change in character or concentration of mineral constituents 
for the period 1953 through 1956. Partial analyses of the samples collected 
during 1955 and 1956 indicate chlorides ranged generally less than 10 ppm 
while sodium did not exceed 15 ppm. No significant increase in boron was 
noted in waters sampled from monitored wells in Upper Lake Valley during 
1955 and 1956. 
Kelseyville Valley, Lake County 

Kelseyville Valley is bounded by Clear Lake on the north and extends 
southerly about seven miles to the mountains of the Coast Range, The valley 
is a gently rollring plain sloping from south to north and including approximately 
19,000 acres. 

Kelseyville Valley is composed of formations similar to those in 
Upper Lake Valley^ namely; beds of volcanic fragments, clays, sands, and 
gravels, including Recent alluvium. The sand and gravel deposits usually 
occur as stringers while the clay beds are generally continuous. Both free 
and confined ground water occurs in the valley. The free ground water, or 
forebay zone, exists in the southern part of the valley while confined ground 
water underlies the portion of the valley bordering on Clear Lake, 

-43- 



The average yield of wells in Kelseyville Valley is about 375 gallons ' 

per minute in the free zone and about 400 gallons per minute in the confined zone. 

There is extensive development of ground water for domestic, irrigation, 
and stock watering needs, and only limited development for industrial needs. The 
land is devoted primarily to the production of fruit and miscellaneous field crops, 
both irrigated and non-irrigated, 

A ground water quality monitoring network of six wells was established 
in this area to maintain a check on water quality conditions. Data on the 
monitored wells are presented in Appendix A, 

Analyses of ground water in Kelseyville Valley collected during 
1955 and 1956 indicate this water is generally good to excellent in quality. 
Results of analyses of ground waters from the monitored wells are presented in 
Appendix B„ Comparison of these analyses shows little significant change in 
quality characteristics since 1953.. Maximum concentrations of sodium and 
chloride were 33 ppm and 21 ppm respectively from wells sampled in 1955 and 1956. ] 
Sacramento Valley I 

At present, two areas in Sacramento Valley have been included in 
the monitoring program, the Sutter- Yuba area and Sacramento County. The Sutter- 
Yuba area was reported previously and Sacramento Coxmty was added to the program 
in 1955. i 

Sutter- Yuba Area , The area of Sutter County included in the groiind 
water quality monitoring program is situated west of Feather River, east of 
Sutter Bypass, and south of Sutter Buttes. Also included is the portion of ^ 
Yuba County lying in the Sacramento Valley floor from Feather River on the 
west to a line marking the approximate limit of the area served by groiind 
water, near the base of the foothills on the east. This area extends north 
and south for a distance of about 39 miles, and varies in width from about 
6 to 19 miles. 



-44- 



I 



Ground water in the Sutter-Yuba area is stored primarily in the 
extensive sand and gravel deposits v^riiich are overlaid by recent alluvial 
deposits. The wells in the area yield from 700 to 900 gallons per minute 
at depths of about 180 to 325 feet„ 

The area supports a highly developed agricultural economy devoted 
to production of deciduous fruits as well as a wide variety of truck and field 
crops, rice and pasture. Approximately two- thirds of the acreage under 
irrigation obtains its water supply from wells. 

The existence of high chloride concentrations in portions of the 
Sutter-Yuba area prompted its inclusion in the ground water quality monitoring 
program. During 1955 and 1956 samples were collected from 1^2. wells in the 
Sutter-Yuba area. Data on the monitored wells are presented in Appendix A. 

Mineral analyses of samples collected from monitored wells in 
the Sutter-Yuba area during 1955 and 1956 are presented in Appendix B. The 
mineral quality of native ground water supplies is excellent or good in all 
zones of the Sutter-Yuba area, except in that portion of the west side zone 
south of Oswald Road where abnormally high chloride concentrations are found. 
High chloride concentrations also occur locally near the town of Robbins, 
some seven miles west of NicolauSo Studies indicate that the high chloride 
concentrations in the fresh water aquifers may be caused by upward migration 
of deep seated connate brines underlying the area. There is a probability (^ 
that upward movement of the brines may be accelerated whon the water table 
is lowered by heavy irrigation pumping. 

Comparison of the analyses of samples collected during the reporting 
period indicates there was little change in quality characteristics for the wells 
which were sampled. There was, however, a moderate increase in chloride 
content in samples from well No. 13N/3E^14R1, where the chloride concentration 
!' increased from 490 to 650 parts per million between September, 1953, and 



-45- 



October, 1955 <> The maximum values j as determined from partial analyses of 

samples from wells in the Sutter-Yuba area during 1955 and 1956, for chloride 

concentrations and per cent sodium was 1020 ppm and 16% respectively. 

Sacramento County . Most of Sacramento County is included in the 

ground water quality monitoring program. The area excluded is that lying 

along the eastern boundary of the County, underlain by materials which yield 

negligible quantities of ground water. 

The deposits of major importance as a source of ground water 

fli 3an< 

supply in Sacramento County include unconsolidated sands, silts, and gravels. 

The Recent alluvium comprises sands, gravels and silts in active stream 

H rita. 

channels and silts in areas subject to overflow. These latter deposits generally 



have the ability to transmit water but in most places are above the water table. 



I disci 
Hydrologic characteristics of the water-bearing formations under- 



lying Sacramento Cotinty are extremely variable. Perched water bodies are 



acii 



m 



common in some areas, due to lenses of impermeable material. Aquifers, how- ) 

■ the ! 

ever, are of such areal extent that wells having large specific capacities 

are found throughout most of the area, \\ 

Since there are localized areas with water quality problems, a 
ground water monitoring program was established. Ground water samples were 
obtained from 35 wells in 1955, and 32 wells in 1956. Data on the monitored 
wells are presented in Appendix A, 

The results of mineral analyses of saimples from monitored wells 

are presented in Appendix B. Ground water of excellent mineral quality occurs 

generally throughout the county. Analyses of samples collected from wells 

aaer 
in the area during 1955 and 1956 indicate that total dissolved solids are 

generally less than 350 ppm. The most notable exception appears in well 

No, 9N/AE-8L1, where total dissolved solids were 577 ppm during November, 

1955o 

-k(>- 



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pres; 



Pirpo 



The waste discharge from a large industry in the eastern portion of the 
county poses a potential threat to ground water quality. The wastes include 
solutions of potassium perchlorate (KClO/j^) and ammonium perchlorate (NH^^CLO/ ) and 
tests for these constituents are included in the analyses <, Analyses of samples 
collected from well No„ 9N/7E-28B1j which supplies the above industry, showed an 
increase in the perchlorate ion from 2 ppra in November, 1955> to 18 ppm in May, 
1956. 
San Joaquin Valley 

The San Joaquin Valley, essentially a water deficient area, is 
vitally concerned with existing and probable gr<3und water quality problems. 
Monitored areas have been established to evaluate these problems and are 
discussed in the following paragraphs, 

San Joaquin County . The monitored area in San Joaquin County 
includes about 550 square miles of valley floor lando The area extends from 
the Sacramento County line on the north to the Stanislaus County line on the 
south, and ranges in width from about fourteen to twenty miles . 

For purposes of ground water study, the geologic formations under- 
lying the area may be divided into the semi-consolidated and unconsolidated 
deposits, which are the principal source of ground water, and consolidated 
basement complex of minor importance as a source of ground water. Fresh 
water in the water-bearing deposits is largely unconfined, although local 
pressure effects may occur. 

The deep wells, in and adjacent to the city of Stockton, have 
experienced wide fluctuations in water levels in recent years due to heavy 
pumping and a growing draft on ground water « Shallow wells with low yields, 
generally less than 150 feet in depth, are used primarily for domestic 
purposes. 

Within the City of Stockton, ground water is used primarily for 

-47- 






municipal and industrial purposes. Areas outside the city are almost 
exclusively devoted to agriculture and utilize large quantities of ground 
water for irrigation. Increasing population, and expansion of industrial 
facilities in the area, causes a constantly growing draft on groiind water. 

An investigation by the Division of Water Resources (1955) 
determined that saline connate water exists in a localized area west of 
Stockton, in sediments east of Stockton, and in formations underlying the 
City of Stockton, An impediment to ground water exists just west of Stockton, 
This impediment appears to have effectively prevented significant movement of 
the saline ground water which underlies the Delta, into the fresh gro\ind water 
underlying Stockton, However, the efficiency of this impediment is doubtful 
if the hydraulic gradient acrcss it were increased by future overdraft, 

A monitoring grid consisting of 16 wells was established in the ■ 
area to detect and trace movement of the poor quality waters occurring west 
of Stockton and to ascertain degradation occurring as a result of abandonment i 
of wells. Ten of the monitor wells are located in a 27 square mile area which 
includes the City of Stockton, The remaining six wells are distributed 

throughout the area. Municipal, industrial and irrigation wells of heavy ^ 

f 

draft, as well as domestic type wells are included in the monitoring program. 

Data on these wells are presented in Appendix A, I 

Mneral analyses of samples collected during the years 1955 and 1956 
are presented in Appendix B, Water in the monitored areas is generally of , 
a calcium carbonate type suitable for present beneficial uses. No significant 
changes are evidenced during the period of record. However, eight of the 
sixteen wells sampled contained water with per cent sodium in excess of 75, 
Water from well No, 1N/6E-10P1 had a concentration of li+lO ppn in total 
dissolved solids and a chloride concentration of 765 ppm in September, 1955? 



-48= 



h 



m\ 



the maximum values for these constituents in the Stockton area. Concentrations 
of 828 ppm total dissolved solids and 376 ppm chlorides were found in waters 
from well 1N/6E-10P2o The fourteen remaining monitored wells had chloride 
concentrations less than 200 ppm and total dissolved solids generally did not 
exceed 350 ppm, 

Fresno County, West Side Area , The portion of San Joaquin Valley 
lying west of the San Joaquin River and between the Fresno-Merced county 
line and Tulare Lake is designated the West Side Area. The area is 
approximately 72 miles longj averages 18 miles in width, and comprises about 
1,300 square miles or 830,000 acreso The majority of the area lies in Fresno 
County with about 90 square miles in Kings County. 

The West Side Area is underlain by fresh water-bearing alluvial 
deposits with depths varying from less than 1000 feet to over 3000 feet« 
The water bearing deposits occur in two principal zones separated by an 
impervious clay layer » Ground water in the lower water bearing zone is 
confined while that in the upper zone is unconfined or seraiconfinedo The 
lower water-bearing zone supplies 80 per cent or more of the ground water 
used for irrigation in the area, A body of very poor quality water exists 
below the fresh water zone, 

A monitoring program was established in the area to detect any 
significant degradation of usable ground water from underlying poor quality 
waters. Nearly all of the wells included in the monitoring progrsim are 
gravel packed to full depth and yield water from both the upper and lower 
aquifer and to some extent from the basal portion of the lower zone. Data 
on wells included in the monitoring program are presented in Appendix A„ 

Mineral analyses of water samples collected in the West Side Area 
during 1955 and 1956 are presented in Appendix B, Quality of water in the 



-49- 



"i 



West Side Area varies in accordance with its source in one of the two major 
water-bearing zones „ The upper zonej, from about 200 to 300 feet below land 
surface^ yields a calcium magnesium sulfate water with a total dissolved 
solids content of about 3,000 ppm and a sodium percentage of about 35 « The 
lower zone yields a sodium sulfate water with a total dissolved solids content 
of about 800 ppm. The basal portion of the lower zone yields a very poor 
sodium chloride water with a total dissolved solids content of more than 
8^000 ppm and a chloride concentration of at least 3 $700 ppm. Boron in 
concentrations that range from 1,5 parts per million to 3„5 parts per 
million was found in water from more than 50 per cent of the wells sampled. 

Determination of significant changes in mineral characteristics 
of waters from either zone poses a complex problem due to the mixing of waters 
in the sampled wells. The resultant mixture is generally sodium sulfate in 
character. Comparison of partial mineral analyses of samples collected during 
1955 and 1956 reveals no significant increase in sodium or chloride concentra- 
tions. In fact, samples from many of the wells contained less sodium and 
chloride than did previous samples from the same wells. 

Raisin City Oil Field Area . The Raisin City Oil Field Area comprises 
an area of about 5,600 acres, approximately 19 miles southwest of the City of 
Fresno. li 

Ground water occurs principally at depths ranging from approximately 
30 feet in the eastern portion of the field to 50 feet in the western portion, - 
Data available from electric logs indicate that the depth to the base of i : 
fresh water is about 1,000 feet in this area. 

During this reporting period, approximately two-thirds of the 
waste water from oil field operations was disposed of into unlined sximps, 
from which it was dispersed by evaporation and/or percolation. 
The remaining third was diverted to disposal wells through 



-50- 



which waste waters were injected under pressure into deep strata underlying 
the fresh water-bearing zoneo Investigation has shown that water from wells 
adjacent to the aforementioned sumps contain chloride concentrations 
considerably in excess of the general level fo\ind in water from surrounding 
wells . 

In view of the possibility of ground water impairment from chlorides 3 
a ground water quality monitoring program consisting of I5 wells was initiated 
in Raisin City Oil Field during 1953= Data on the monitored wells in the 
Raisin City Oil Field Area are presented in Appendix A„ 

Mineral analyses of samples collected during 1955 and 1956 from 
the monitored wells are presented in Appendix Bo Comparison of these analyses 
with those previously published^ indicates significant changes in sodium and 
chloride concentration in water from two wells „ The most notable among 
these increases is shown by the analyses of water from well No„ 15S/17&-14G1 
where chloride concentration increased from 86 ppm in February, 1953? to 
1800 ppm in October, 1955. Chloride concentration in samples from well 
No. 15S/17E-13G1 increased from 79 ppm in July, 1954, to 2420 ppm in 
September, 1955, but decreased to 1376 ppm in September, 1956o The cause 
of the fluctuation in these constituents has not been determined. Sodium 
concentrations in the area range from 32 to 602 ppm„ Eleven of the wells 
sampled, however, had sodium concentrations less than 100 ppm. 

Devils Den Oil Field Area , Devils Den Oil Field Area lies in the 
northwest portion of Kern County, about 50 miles northwest of Taft and 35 
miles southeast of Coalinga, and on the extreme eastern flank of the Coast 
Range Mountains, The field is surrounded by alluvium composing the San 
Joaquin ground water basin. In r elation to ground water occurrence, the 
formations in the area are the consolidated sediments, of minor importance 



-51- 



as a source of fresh ground water^ and the unconsolidated alluvium^ the 
principal source of fresh ground vfater„ 

Lands in and adjacent to the oil field are presently used for non- 
irrigated pasture, Dagany Gap and a portion of MeClure Valley which lies 
north and west of the oil field are irrigated from wells in McClure Valley. 
Domestic water for the use of oil operators in Devils Den Oil Field is 
trucked in from Avenal and other distant points » 

Oil field waste waters are disposed of in evaporation or percolation 
basins located in.natxiral depressions on hillsides and in gullies prepared 
for that purpose by construction of earth dikes and impounding dams„ Seepage 
and/or overflow of the waste waters during periods of heavy runoff poses a 
potential threat to quality of ground water in the area surrounding the oil 
field waste disposal sites. To detect possible damage to ground water quality, 
a network of wells within the oil field area and McClure Valley was selected 
for monitoring. Data on these wells are presented in Appendix A. 

Available data concerning the nature of ground waters in McClure 
Valley indicate that they are of inferior quality. Total dissolved solids 
range in concentration from about 1,000 to 1,500 ppm and boron varies from 
approximately 1,5 to 10 ppm. These waters are predominantly magnesium and 
sodium sulfate in type. Sulfate concentrations range from about 675 to 2,200 ppm. 

Analyses of samples collected from monitored wells during 1955 and 
1956 are presented in Appendix B. Comparison of analyses with those previously 
reported reveals no significant increase in mineral concentrations. However, 
the chloride content of water from well No, 25S/18E-3N2 decreased from 1,200 
ppm in August, 1953 to 503 ppm in June^ 1956, 

Edison Oil Field Area , Edison Oil Field Area, comprising about 
17,000 acres, is located in the center of Kern County southeast of the City 
of Bakersfield, The field occupies an alluvial fan which has a southwesterly 
gradient about 30 feet to the mile, 

-52= 



aedii 



are' 



tott 



to on 



scatt 



area 



this 



inqii 
trati 
»8lls 



iiies 






The area is underlain by a fairly thick section of water-bearing 
sediments which slope gently westward from the Sierra Nevada and Tehachapi 
Mountains toward the trough of San Joaquin Valley, These sediments constitute 
the principal zone of fresh ground water storage beneath Edison Oil Field and 
are the only source of supply for the area. 

The disposal of oil field waste waters is generally accomplished 
by discharge into unlined sumps or percolation ponds « Studies have shown 
that at this time only very limited pollution of ground water can be attributed 
to the present method of waste disposal o That ground water quality has not 
been affected to a greater or more recognizable degree might be attributed 
to one or more of the following conditions? large quantities of waste water 
have been discharged for relatively few years; waste water sumps are 
scattered over a large area so that the effects are dispersed; soils in the 
area may have a boron fixing capacity; or pollution is confined to only the 
upper portion of the ground water body and therefore is not detected in water 
samples from deep irrigation wells. Because of the potential threat of pollu- 
tion from this source, a monitoring grid of 13 wells has been established in 
this area to provide a continuing check on quality. Data on the monitored 
wells are presented in Appendix A, 

Analyses of samples collected during 1955 and 1956 are presented 
in Appendix B„ Comparison of these analyses shows little significant change 
in qucility characteristics of well waters during the period. Maximum concen- 
trations of sodium and chloride were 80 ppm and l65 ppm, respectively, from 
wells sampled in 1955 and 1956, 

Lahontan Region (No, 6) 
The Lahontan Region, part of the Great Basin, extends about 575 
miles along the eastern border of California, attaining a maximum width of 



-53- 



about 170 miles through the Mojave Desert, Topography of the region varies 
greatly, vd.th the rugged snowcapped Sierra Nevada on the west, and arid desert 
basins on the east and south o This region has a unique structural topography, 
consisting of a series of mountains and intermontane basins. These basins t; 
are normally centrally drained but may spill over, one into the other, and $' 
develop a longitudinal drainage system traversing a group of basins „ The 
majority of the flat low-lyirig lands are located in the arid portions of the 
region. 

Large military installations in the southerly desert portion, together 
with aviation and supporting industries, have given impetus to rapid population 
growth, particularly in the Antelope and Mojave River Valleys „ Mining and 
agriculture are major contributors to the economy of the area although 
agriculture is limited by the scarcity of water. 

Fifty-eight ground water basins have been identified in the 
Lahontan Region. The Lower Mojave River Valley from Barstow to Yermo is the 
only area so far included in the monitoring program. 

Lower Mojave River Valley g Barstow to Yermo 

The area included in the monitoring program extends from the city of 
Barstow easterly through Yermo, in the central portion of San Bernardino 
County . 

Recent alluvial deposits of the Mojave River underlie most of the 
area and comprise the principal aquifer. The only source of water in the 
Lower Mojave River Valley is from ground water, replenished primarily by 
surface and subsurface flow in Mojave River. 

Barstow, the only large city within this area and an inportant 
railroad center, nearby military bases, irrigated agriculture, and mining 
developments are the principal users of ground water in Lower Mojave River 
Valley, 

-54- 



An investigation of ground water conditions in this area was made by 
the State Division of Water Resources in 1951-52, at the request of the 
Lahontan Regional Water Pollution Control Board, Although no evidence of 
pollution of ground water was found during the investigation, it was recommended 
in the report that a monitoring program be established and maintained in the 
vicinity. 

Eight monitor wells are located adjacent to the Mojave River in an 
area extending between Barstow and Yermo„ Data on these wells are presented 
in Appendix A. 

Mineral analyses of water obtained from the monitored wells are 
presented in Appendix B„ The waters are predominately sodium calcium bicarbonate 
and sodium bicarbonate. Total dissolved solids range from 228 to 884 ppm„ 
Chlorides in the well waters range from 20 to 106 ppm with the higher chloride 
values, in general, located east of Barstow and upstream of the Marine 
facility at Nebo, The lowest chloride values are found in well 9N/2Ei-8Fl, 
which is located south of Yermo, and is the most easterly of the monitoring 
wells. Chlorides were noted to be increasing in all wells except wells 
9N/1W-5J1 and 9N/2W-1F1. 

Gro\ind waters containing the higher concentrations of boron are 
located immediately below Barstow at wells 9N/1W-5J1 and 9N/1W-9G1. These 
well waters have boron concentrations of 3=2 and 1.2 ppm, respectively, render- 
ing the water unsuitable for irrigation of plants sensitive to this element. 
Per cent sodium in the waters from the monitored wells ranges between 34 
and 53, with the exception that water from well 9N/1W-5J1 contained 85 per 
cent sodixim. Ground water from the monitoring wells is generally of good 
quality for domestic purposes, although some of the wells have very hard 
water. 



-55- 



I' 



Colorado River Basin Region (No. 7) 



Colorado River Basin Region comprises all basins south of the 
Lahontan Region, east of the Santa Ana and San Diego Regions^ west of the 
Arizona border, and north of the California-Mexico boundary. The region 
has an average vd.dth of more than 125 miles, averages about 150 miles in 
length and includes an area of approximately 20,000 square miles. 

Topography of the Colorado River Basin is characterized by large 
desert valleys with interior drainage, separated from each other by numerous 
dispersed mountain ranges, A dry lake bed usually occupies the point of 
lowest elevation in the valleys of interior drainage. 

A valley or trough, having a length of about 100 miles and a 
width ranging from 10 to 40 miles, extends northwesterly from the International 
Boundary. Salton Sea occupies the central portion of this trough, with the 
Coachella Valley to the northwest and Imperial Valley to the south. Flow in 
the New, Alamo, and Whitewater Rivers, which empty into Salton Sea, consists 
mainly of return water from irrigated lands in Imperial and Coachella Valleys. 

Agriculture is a major contributor to the economy in this region. 
Mining, toixrism, and military bases are also important to the economy. The I- 
more important agricultural developments are in the Imperial, Coachella, 
Palo Verde, Borrego, and Yuma Valleys, which are noted for production of a 
wide variety of irrigated fruit, truck, and field crops. Irrigation water 
for Imperial, Palo Verde, and Yuma Valleys and the lower portion of Coachella 
Valley is obtained from the Colorado River. In Borrego Valley and the upper 
portion of Coachella Valley, irrigation water is obtained entirely from 
local ground water resources. The principal mining activities in the area 
are also dependent upon ground water. 

Forty-six ground water basins have been identified in the Colorado 



i 

i 



-56- 






River Basin Region, The southern portion of the Coachella Valley is presently 
the only area included in the monitoring program, 

Coachella Valley 

This valley includes an area of approximately 680 square miles in 
Riverside Countyc Since 1947, Colorado River water has been imported through 
the Coachella Canal to supplement local vaters in meeting the increasing 
water requirement of the valley. This water is used in lower Coachella Valley 
from the vicinity of Indio to the Salton Sea, The area included in the 
monitoring program extends southwesterly from two and one-half miles northwest 
of Indio to within three and one-half miles of the Salton Sea^ and is generally 
the same as that which receives Colorado River water. 

The principal water producing zone underlying lower Coachella Valley 
consists of unconsolidated sand, gravel, and silt capped by Lake Cahuilla 
sediments. This is a very productive zone and is used extensively. Many of 
the wells tapping water from this zone were artesian in the early 1920 's. 
These wells, however, are no longer flowing because heavy withdrawal of 
ground water has lowered the piezometric surface. This zone is replenished 
by ground water moving southeastward fr<Mi the upper portion of the basin. 
Above the principal zone is a shallow zone of perched water, accumulated 
from irrigation return flow, waste water, and rainfall. 

This area is being monitored to detect the occurrence of any 
pollution or degradation in the deeper ground waters of this basin due to 
interconnections of the water-bearing zones, and to indicate any changes 
produced by imported water. 

Water in the shallow zone is generally of poorer quality than water 
in the principal zone and may be subject to direct pollution from waste 
discharges or impairment from return irrigation water. Degraded waters of 



-57- 



1 



the shallow zone could move through abandoned or improperly constructed wells 
to the deeper zone. High gro-und water conditions caused by heavy applications 
of irrigation water have necessitated the use of tile drains in portions of 
this area„ 

Data on wells included in the monitoring network are presented in 
Appendix A„ All monitored wells except one are perforated between the depths 
of 108 and 700 feet and obtain w^ter from the principal water producing zone. 
Well NOo 6S/8E-10A2 is perforated between 60 and 80 feet and produces from 
the shallow zone. 

Mineral analyses of water from the monitored wells are presented in 
Appendix Bo Five of the twelve monitored wells in the area yield water of 
calcium bicarbonate type» Waters of the other wells are sodium bicarbonate^ 
sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in character o Coachella Valley ground 
waters range between soft and very hard^ Sodium percentages in the water 
range between 20 and 96^ with the higher percentages being fovind in the 
lower end of the basin. Below Thermal^ the per cent sodivim in well 6S/8E-27H1 
ranged between 60 and 70 and further down the valley from this well the per 
cent sodium ranged between 75 and 96 „ The latter sodium percentages are 
unsatisfactory for irrigation use on most California soils. 

In general, an increase has been noted in chloride over the last 
three years j with concentrations ranging between 16 and 858 ppm. The highest 
chloride concentration was found in water from well 6S/7E-25E1„ Total dissolved 
solids in all the monitoring wells ranged between 147 and 855 ppm except for 
well 6S/7E-25E1, which had concentrations of 1,046 and 2,340 ppm in 1955 and 
1956 respectively. Total dissolved solids increased in all the wells during 
the last three years. Fluoride concentration in the well waters varied 
between 0.2 and 4.2 ppm, with the exception of water from well 7S/9E-16K1 in 
the vicinity of Mecca, where the fluoride concentration varied between 60O 

and 12,0 ppm. 

»58. 



t 



t 

Ived 



Santa Ana Region (No. 8) 

Santa Ana Region comprises the entire drainage area of the Santa 
Ana River and all basins draining into the Pacific Ocean between the Los 
Angeles-Orange County line on the north and west and the drainage divide 
between Muddy and Moro Canyons on the south o This region extends approximately 
25 miles along the coast and extends inland a maximum distance of about 90 
miles. The region includes an area of approximately 2,850 square miles. 
Orange County Coastal Plain in the Santa Ana Region extends along the ocean 
about 15 miles from the Los Angeles-Orange County line to the vicinity of 
Costa Mesa, and extends inland an average of about 20 miles „ The Upper Santa 
Ana Valley lies further inland, pocketed between the mountains and foothills. 

Nine ground water basins and 2? sub-basins have been identified 
in the Santa Ana Region but only Chino and Bunker Hill Basins, and the East 
Coastal Plain Pressure Area are included in the ground water monitoring program. 

East Coastal Plain Pressure Area 

East Coastal Plain Pressure Area constitutes the extreme coastal 
portion of the Orange County Coastal Plain Basin and extends about 10 miles 
inland from the coast. 

Topography of coastal Orange County is characterized by a series of 
gaps and mesas, A prominent geologic feature of the area is the Newport- 
Inglewood structural zone which essentially parallels the coast, approximately 
one-half mile inland. This fault zone acts as a partial barrier to movement 
of ground water in older deposits but exerts little or no effect upon 
deposits of Recent age. Inland of the fault zone, waters are extensively 
used for domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial purposes. 

Agriculture is a major economic activity in Orange County with 
truck crops, citxnis, and beans comprising the principal crops. Coastal Orange 

-59- 



Co\inty has experienced rapid urbanization^ and is considered to be vd.thin the 
Metropolitan Los Angeles area. Subdivisions and industrial developments are 
rapidly encroaching upon agricultural areas » Oil production is an important 
industry in the East Coastal Plain Pressure Area. Newport, West Newport, and 
Huntington Beach oil fields^ as well as a portion of the Seal Beach oil 
field, are located in this sub-basin. 

In the development of these oil fields during the first two decades 
of this century, a considerable quantity of oil field brine was disposed of 
near the point of origin, mainly by percolation and evaporation. These 
early practices have^ for the most part^ been discontinued. However, some 
wastes are still disposed of in this mannero In general, in the East Coastal 
Plain Pressure Area, domestic and industrial wastes are collected and disposed 
of by discharge into the ocean through submarine outfalls. 

Imported Colorado River water supplements zhe ground water supply 
in this area. In coastal Orange Coiinty extensive pumping of ground water 
aquifers has lowered the piezometric surface of ground water to below sea 
level and the resultant landward gradient has induced sea-water intrusion along 
the coast o 

A ground water quality monitoring program has been instituted in 
this area to determine the extent and degree of deterioration of ground 
water quality in the coastal area. Data on monitored wells are presented in 
Appendix A. 

Mineral analyses of samples taken during 1955 and 1956 are presented 
in Appendix B„ Quality of water in Coastal Orange County is extremely 
variable in nature. Waters in the Santa Ana gap are calcium chloride in 
character, with the exception of water from well 6S/11W-12Q1 located about a 
mile inland from the ocean, which is sodium chloride water. Soditim and 



.60- 



bicarbonate were the predominant ions in the waters of Huntington Beach and 
Bolsa Chica Mesas, Total dissolved solids content in the ground waters sampled 
ranged between 238 and 4s 828 ppm„ The higher values are located in the gaps 
nearest the shore, indicating impairment due to sea-water intrusion or waste 
disposal in the coastal area. 

Generally, increases in total dissolved solids were noted in water 
from wells in the Santa Ana gap, with the exception of wells 6S/10W-7L1 and 
6S/11W-12Q1, located 9,000 and 6,000 feet, respectively, from the shore line. 
Range of chloride concentration in the sampled waters was from 12 ppm to 
2,638 ppm. In general the higher chloride concentrations were noted in the 
gaps near the ocean and lower concentrations were found in the mesas and the 
inland areas. Increases in chlorides were noticed in most of the well waters 
in Santa Ana gap and the mesas. 

The highest value of nitrate found during this sampling period was 
29 ppm at well 6S/llW=3R2, located on Huntington Beach mesa. The remainder 
of the monitoring wells contained water with nitrate concentrations ranging 
from 0.0 ppm to 20 ppm. The per cent sodium in well waters was generally 
less than 61, except at wells 5S/12W-12C1, 5S/11W.29C1, and 6S/11W-3R2, where 
the highest value was 89, 5 per cent. These three wells are located on 
Huntington Beach mesa, Bolsa Chica mesa, and Landing Hill, respectively, with 
wells in the intervening gaps having lower values of per cent sodium. Per 
cent sodium in the first two wells above has been increasing, while the per 
cent sodium in well 6S/11W-3R2 has been decreasing after reaching 91 per cent 
during December, 1954, The highest boron concentration noted was 1,40 ppm 
at well 5S/11W-26M1 located on the north flank of Huntington Beach mesa. 

The waters are generally unsuitable for irrigation or domestic use 
in the gaps within two miles of the coast because of the high chlorides. Near 

-61- 



the coast on the mesas j the ground waters are unsuitable for irrigation use 
because of the high percentage sodium^ although the chlorides are within 
the recommended limits, 

Chino Basin 

Chino Basin is a large alluvial filled basin of the upper Santa 
Ana Valley about 20 miles long and 15 miles wide. The basin is intermontane, 
bounded on the north by the high, rugged San Gabriel Mountains and on the 
south by the Chino Hills and Santa Ana Mountains, The alluvium of the basin 
comprises outwash deposits by streams emanating from the surrounding hills 
and mountains, 

Colorado River water is used as a supplementary source of water in 
this basin. Agriculture comprises the major use with the predominant crops 
being citrus and grapes, although urban and industrial requirements have 
increased significantly in recent years. 

Industrial and domestic waste disposal in Chino Basin is principally 
by discharge to surface streams or percolation ponds. Only one industrial 
waste discharge is connected to a sewer with an ocean outfall, A monitoring 
well network was established in the southern portion of this basin to 
ascertain the cumulative effect of a number of industrial waste and domestic 
sewage discharges. Data on the monitored wells are presented in Appendix A, 

Appendix B presents mineral analyses of waters sampled from the 
monitor wells during 1955 and 1956, Ground water is calcium bicarbonate in 
nature with total dissolved solids ranging from 195 to 675 ppm; the lower 
values being in waters from the most northeasterly wells. The highest value 
of total dissolved solids is found in the water from well 2S/7W-27A1, 
Comparison of these analyses with those of the two previous years shows a 
general increase in the total dissolved solids. The values of per cent sodium 



-62- 



t 



ranged between 13 and 22 „ A general increase in chloride concentration was 
noted in all the well waters. The highest concentrationj 71 ppm, was foiind 
in water from well 2S/7W-23E1„ Values of nitrate concentrations were found 
to average 62 ppm in water from well 2S/7W-21L1 and 52 ppm in water from 
well 2S/7W-27A1. These wells are located downslope from the other monitoring 
wells. 

The total hardness of the ground water in this basin varied between 
150 and 605 ppm, with the harder waters being fovuid in the lower portion of 
the basin. 

In general, the quality of groiind water is suitable for irrigation 
and domestic uses. 

Bunker Hill Basin 

Bunker Hill Basin is located in the upper Santa Ana River drainage 
area south of, and adjoining, the lower slopes of the San Bernardino 
Mountains, with the major portion of the basin lying east of the city of San 
Bernardino. The basin extends approximately 20 miles along the base of the 
mountains, is about eight miles wide at its maximum width and occupies an 
area of approximately 92 square miles. 

Topography of this basin reflects the deposition and erosion by 
Cajon Creek, Santa Ana River, Mill Creek, and several small streams. Each 
of the named streams has a well-defined alluvial cone and these cones 
coalesce in the central portion of the basin, forming a smooth plain which 
slopes to the southwest » 

Residential, industrial, and agricultural developments cover much 
of Bunker Hill Basin. The major portion of the industrial developments are 
situated in or adjacent to the City of San Bernardino. Ground water is 
pumped heavily in this basin to meet these requirements, 

-63- 



i. 

I 



The practice of disposal of sewage and industrial wastes in this 
area has been by discharge to surface streams or percolation ponds » A zeolite 
company near the northwest limits of the City of San Bernardino, manufactures 
synthetic sodium zeolite which produces a waste with a high pH and a high 
sodium concentration. Investigation of this waste disposal practice found 
that effects of the waste appeared only in the ground water near the plant, 
but available hydrologic and geologic data indicate that downstream wells may 
be impaired in time. Numerous wastes are discharged to the Santa Ana River in 
the central portion of this basin. Several wells have been sampled in this 
area to detect changes in water quality resulting from these waste discharges. 
Monitoring wells 1N/4W=29F1 and 1N/4W-29L1 are located about one-half mile 
southeasterly (along the hydraulic gradient) of the company's sumps. Data jj 
on wells included in the monitoring program are presented in Appendix A, 

Mineral analyses of water from the monitored wells are presented 
in Appendix B, Ground water in this basin is calcium bicarbonate in 
character. Total dissolved solids in the well waters ranged between 152 and 
U3& ppnij and per cent sodium ranged between 9,2 and 33^6^ with the highest 
sodium percentage being found in water from well 1S/4W-13F2. Decrease in 
per cent sodixim from previous years was noted at wells 1N/AW-29F1 and 
1N/4W-29L1, Maximum boron concentration noted was 1,29 ppm at well 1S/4W-13F3 
while concentrations of boron in the other well waters did not exceed 0,88 ppm. 
Variation in chloride concentration was from U to 2? ppm. Increase in chloride 
concentrations of a few parts per million was noted in all well waters 
sampled. Maximum fluoride concentration was 0,8 ppm in water from well 
lS/4W-13F3s which also had the highest boron concentration and sodium percentage 

In general^ the waters are of good quality for irrigation and 
domestic usej however, the waters are hard to very hard, thereby decreasing 
their desirability for domestic use. 



-64- 






I 



San Diego Region (NOo 9) 

San Diego Region comprises all basins draining into the Pacific 
Ocean south of the divide between Muddy and Moro Canyons in Orange County 
and north of the California-Mexico boundary o The region averages about 50 
I miles in width, about 80 miles in length and occupies an area of approximately 
3,830 square miles. 

The economy of the region is dependent upon irrigated and non- 
irrigated agriculture, extensive military installations, commercial fishing 
and shipping, and tourism to some extent. 

More than 20 ground water basins have been identified in the San 
Diego Region, Most of these basins are relatively small, although many are 
extensively developed. El Cajon Valley Basin and coastal portions of San 
Luis Rey and Tia Juana Basins are at present included in the monitoring program. 

San Luis Rey Valley 

San Luis Rey Valley is a long, narrow river valley in northern San 
Diego County, Although it extends approximately 30 miles inland from the 
Pacific Ocean, only the lower portion of this valley, which is adjacent to 
the ocean, has been included in the monitoring program. This portion of the 
valley is about six miles long and varies from two miles to less than one- 
quarter mile in width. 

The coastal portion of the valley floor is formed by Recent alluvial 

i 
deposits of San Luis Rey River underlain and bordered by older sedimentary 

deposits. The unconsolidated Recent alluviiim constitutes the source of 

ground water. 

The valley floor in this area is extensively utilized for production 

of irrigated truck and field crops. 



-65- 



Deterioration of ground water quality due to saline water intrusion 
has been evident for many years in wells along the coastal portion of this 
area. A monitoring program was established to provide valuable information 
regarding the extent and magnitude of the saline water encroachment. Data 
on the monitored wells are presented in Appendix A. 

Mineral analyses of water obtained from the monitored wells are 
presented in Appendix B„ There is no uniformity in the character of the 
waters throughout the monitoring area although calciumj, sodium^ chloride, 
and bicarbonate are the predominant ions in the majority of the waters. 
Water from well llS/4W=4Nlj which is the well furthest upstream in the 
monitoring program^, had an average of 65O' ppm total dissolved solids during 
the monitoring period. Total dissolved solids in well 11S/5W-23E1 increased 
from 11,800 to 19^520 ppm during the years 1955 and 1956o Data indicate that 
total dissolved solids are steadily increasing in water from this well, which 
is about one-half mile from the ocean. Chlorides in the water from this 
well increased steadily from 3? 600 ppm in early 1953 to 9,500 ppm in late 1956, 
The chlorides in water from the monitoring well furthest upstream on the 
river, llS/4W-4Nls varied between 129 and I36 ppm over the past two years 
and had a low concentration of 125 ppm three years ago. In general, the 
chloride concentration in all well waters sampled downstream from this well 
exceeded 250 ppm, except in wells 11S/4W-18L4 and 11S/5W-13L1 where the 
chloride concentration ranged between 212 and 288 ppm, Sodi\im concentration 
in all the well waters sampled was less than 46 per cent during the last two 
years, with the exception of the water from well 11S/5W-23E1 where it varied 
between 68 and 73 per cent. The highest boron content, 1,20 ppm, was also 
found in water from this well. Concentration of boron in water from other 
monitoring wells did not exceed 0.35 ppm. Concentration of fluoride in the 
well waters did not exceed 0.8 ppm. 



»66- 



\ 



f 



I 



Although the monitored waters are generally of poor quality, they 
are used extensively in this basin for both irrigation and domestic uses. 

El Ca.jon Valley 

El Cajon Valley is located in San Diego County approximately 15 
miles east of San Diego „ It is a small, roughly circular valley surrounded 
by a rim of low hills o The valley is approximately five miles across, 
having an area of about 14,000 acres o The main drainage channel from the 
valley is Forester Creek, tributary to the San Diego River. 

The valley is underlain at depth by crystalline rocks and sediments 
which are covered with a thin coating of alluvium. All formations in the 
valley contain some water, but none yield large amounts to wells. 

Although Colorado River water is being used in increasing quantities, 
much of the valley still relies on ground water. Most of the ground water 
is obtained from fractured and weathered zones in the crystalline rock. Very 
little water is obtained from the sediments due to their low permeability. 

Although portions of the valley are used agriculturally, it is 
highly developed as a residential area. Two communities, El Cajon and 
Bostonia, are located in this valley. 

This area has been included in the monitoring program to detect 
changes in the water quality due to the use and re-use of ground water and 
the use of imported Colorado River water in this valley. Data on the wells 
included in the monitoring program are presented in Appendix A. 

Mineral analyses of water obtained from the monitored wells are 
presented in Appendix B, Fifteen wells are included in the monitoring 
program in El Cajon Valley, about 50 per cent contain waters of sodium calcium 
chloride character, the other wells contain sodium chloride character waters. 
Total dissolved solids ranged from 720 to 4,395 ppm. 



-67- 



peril 



Wells 16S/1W-11P4., 16S/1W-3K3, and l6S/lW-15K3 located on the 
southwest side of the valley contain waters with electrical conductivities 
in excess of 35^000, The value of electrical conductivity did not exceed ■ llhK 
2^600 in the other monitored wells. Maximum boron concentration in water 4 olisf 
from monitored wells was 0,53 ppm„ Concentration of nitrates in many of ' ast 

the well waters exceeded the limit of 44 ppm. Per cent sodium m the well Mlsedi 
waters did not exceed 583 with the exception of wells 16S/1W-10E2 and I6S/IW-I5K3 ffl isti 
where the percentages were 72 and 70^ respectively. | onl; 

Chloride concentrations in all the well waters, except those from 
wells I5S/IE-3IRI and 16S/1W-1H4, exceeded 250 ppn. The two latter wells 11 to a 
are located in the northeastern portion of the valley and contained water ^ jm 
with chloride concentrations of I83 and 199 ppm, respectively. Records indicate 
that the chloride concentration in both of these wells has been increasing Brain: 
steadily. In the water from well I5S/IE-3IRI5 chloride concentration increased 
from 108 ppm in 1951 to 183 ppm in 1956, An adjacent well, I6S/IW-IH4, also 
showed an increase in chlorides during these years. A rise was noted in the 
chloride, nitrate, and total dissolved solids concentration in most of the 
wells in this valley., 

Although the ground waters of this basin are extensively used, they lincli 
are generally poor in quality, 

Tia Juana Valley Basin 

The Tia Juana Basin, situated approximately 15 miles south of the 
City of San Diego, is the most southerly ground water basin in the San Diego 
Region, It extends along the Tia Juana River into Mexico and is bounded by 
hills to the north, east, and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The 
Tia Juana Basin, as referred to herein, includes only that portion of the Tia 
Juana River Valley in the United States, This basin has an area of approximately 
4^300 acres of relatively flat valley fill. 



Irrig 

filly 

tlilor 

sjJit 



-68- 

I 



The basin is composed of alluvium deposited by the Tia Juana River « 
Throughout most of the area included in the monitoring program, hydrologic 
observations indicate the presence of a deep water-bearing zone overlain by 
a shallow zone„ Both zones occur in the alluvium, but the upper zone 
sediments, because of lower permeability, give the lower zone the character- 
istics of a pressure aquifero In the eastern portion of the monitored area, 
only one water-bearing zone exists in the permeable alluviumo 

Although not heavily populated the region is extensively developed 
to agriculture. Irrigated truck, alfalfa, and other field crops are widely 
grown. 

Prior investigations have shown that during periods of above average 
rainfall the ground water in the basin is recharged, and during drought 
periods withdrawn in such amoiints that the gro\ind water levels are depressed 
below sea level, especially in the lower portions of the basin. This latter 
condition creates a landward gradient conducive to sea-water intrusion. 
During the period since 1947, water quality impairment has been noted in 
several wells in the coastal area. Tia Juana Basin has therefore been 
included in the monitoring program in order to determine the extent and rate 
of ground water deterioration. Data on wells included in the monitoring 
program are presented in Appendix A. 

Mineral analyses of water obtained from monitored wells are presented 
in Appendix B, Waters in the basin are sodium chloride in character with 
chloride concentration being above 250 ppm in all the monitoring wells. 
Irrigation waters with chloride content as high as 680 ppm are used success- 
fully in Tia Juana Valley, Wells near the river mouth produced waters with 
chloride concentrations ranging between 450 and 4,470 ppm. Waters from the 
monitoring well farthest up the valley, well 19S/2W-1E4 one-half mile south 



-69- 



of San Ysidro and about 5 miles inland, had chloride concentrations varying 
from 557 to 772 ppm during the years 1955 and 1956. During the previous 
reporting period (1953-1954) j the highest chloride concentration was 6l3 ppm. 
Ten years previously in February, 1943, the chloride concentration in this 
well was 330 ppm,, 

Water from well 18S/2W-32P4, located a mile inland from the mouth 
of the river, had chloride concentrations ranging from 3,580 to 4j470 ppm 
during 1955 and 1956 ■> Total dissolved solids in the ground water through 
the basin ranged from a high of 8,824 ppm near the river mouth down to 
1,603 ppm near San Ysidro. 

Although the ground waters of this basin are generally of poor 
quality and would not be recommended for irrigation or domestic use, they 
are extensively and successfully used. 



!- 



f 



-70- 



ic^ 



I 



^; 



I 



INDEX TO 


AREAS 




NORTH COASTAL REGION (NO. 1) 


CfflTRAL VALU2 REGION (NO. 5) 


1-1 Smith River Plain 


5-13 


Upper Uke Valley 


1-15 Uklah Valley 


5-15 


Kelseyville Valley 


1-16 Sanel Valley 


5-21a 


Sutter Yuba Area 




5- 21b 


Sacramento County 




5-2 2a 


San Joaquin County 




5-2 2b 


Fresno County, West Side Area 


SAH FRANCISCO BAT REGION (NO. 2) 


5-22C 


Raisin City Oil Field Area 




5-22d 


Devils Den Oil Field Area 


2-9a Santa Clara Valltiy, East Bay 


5-22e 


Ediaon Oil Field Area 


Area 






2-9b SanU Clara Valley, South 






Bay Area 






2-10 Livermore Valley 




LAHONTAN REGION (NO. 6) 



CEIffRAL COASTAL RFGION (NO. 3) 



6-IjO Lower Hojave River Valley, 
BaratoH to Termo 



3-2 Pajaro VaUey 
3-1 Salinas Valley 
3-7 Camel Vall^ 
3-12 Santa Maria Valley 
3-13 Cuyana Valley 




COLORADO RIVER BASIN REGION (NO. 7) 
7-21 CoacheUa Valley 


LOS ANGELES RECIOIJ (NO. 

li-lj.Ol Oxnard Plain Basin 
Ij- 11.02 West Coast flaain 


M 


SANTA ANA REGION (NO. 8) 

8-1,01 East Coastal Plain Pressure Are 
8-2.01 Chino Basin 
8-2.06 Bunker Hill Qaaln 



Area of Sea-*Jater Intrusion 
Torrance Area 
Athens Area 

li-11.03 

Ii-ILOU Central Coastal Plain Pres- 
sure Area and Loe Angeles 
Forebay Area 

I1-I3.OI Hain San Gabriel Basin 



9-7 

9-16 
9-19 



SAH DIEGO REGION (NC. 9) 

San Uiia Rey Valley 

El Cajon Valley 

Tla Juana Valley Basin 




APPENDIX A 



WELL DATA 



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APPENDIX B 



MINERAL ANALYSES OF GROUND WATER 



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THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



RENEWED BOOKS ARE SUBJECT TO IMMEDIATE 
RECALL 



CD imm 



m 



21980 



CO 



LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS 

Book Slip-20»i-8,'61(C1623s4)458 




California. Dept. of 
water resources. 



TV.T -I .X J -k 



J^\\?0' 



"nWh < 



PHYSICAL 

SCltNCtS 

LIBRARY 



Call Number: 



TCe2l; 

C2 

A2 

AX 

no. let ifS-Si 

C- •3. 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY Of CALIFORNIA 

DAVIS 

240493